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Toward Available, Affordable, and Quality Childcare in East Asia and Pacific

This brief assesses the regulatory frameworks around childcare provision for the ten economies in East Asia and Pacific: China; Fiji; Hong Kong SAR, China; Indonesia; Malaysia; Mongolia; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Vietnam. It sheds light on essential entry points for facilitating and informing policy dialogue in the region around the key demand and supply side that limit or facilitate formal provision of childcare services.

Women, Business and the Law Economy Summaries

The economy summary series delves into legal reforms that advance women’s economic empowerment. It also identifies gaps that persist before men and women achieve equality before the law. Each summary draws on Women, Business and the Law data from 1970 to 2020 and input from civil society organizations.

Key Ingredients to Women’s Legal Rights in Kenya

This brief focuses on a series of reforms in Kenya, specifically, the adoption of the Sexual Offenses Act of 2006, the Employment Act of 2007, and the Protection Against Domestic Violence Act of 2015. The lessons in this brief can provide important insights for policy makers, advocacy groups and international organizations involved in the pursuit of legal gender equality in Kenya and other countries.

Reforms to Enhance Gender Equality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: From ...

This brief examines the introduction of the Law on Parity in 2015 and an amendment to the Family Code in 2016. These two examples highlight three success factors: gender champions across local civil society groups; government and international actors making the economic case for reforming discriminatory provisions; and international obligations that allowed the reforms to pass.

Challenging Entrenched Marital Power in South Africa

This brief examines more than three decades of reform toward removing the husband's marital power from South African legislation, offering important insights on optimal contexts for change and the role of women in ongoing advocacy efforts.

Regional Profiles

The regional profile series presents data on laws, regulations, and reform trends that advance women’s economic empowerment. It highlights persistent gaps and identifies best practices to help achieve equality before the law. Each profile draws on Women, Business and the Law data from 1970 to 2020. Regional profiles in the series include Western and Central Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa, and South Asia.


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The Rights of Women with Disabilities

This topic note showcases the results of a pilot research on the legal rights of women with disabilities in 176 economies as part of the 10 Commitments on Disability-Inclusive Development.

50 Years of Women's Rights

How have women’s legal rights evolved over the last 50 years? This infographic explores how more than 1,500 reforms enhancing women’s economic empowerment were passed in every country over the past 50 years.

Protecting Women from Violence

This topic note examines the legally-mandated access and existence of certain key support services in a set of 100 economies on regulation aimed at closing gaps between laws and their implementation.

Tackling Childcare

This note showcases how different countries regulate private childcare services. It builds awareness of how quality childcare services are linked to women’s economic empowerment and identifies areas for reform.

Discriminatory Laws Against Women: A Survey of Literature

This working paper reviews the empirical literature on the impact of gender discriminatory laws on women’s outcomes across various domains constituting Women, Business and the Law’s measure of gender inequality.

Saving for Old Age

Differences women face in their working lives relative to men can result in unequal economic outcomes in retirement. This case study examines the gender gap in access to pensions.

Women's Financial Inclusion and the Law

A case study examining how discriminatory laws can affect women’s demand for financial services.

Ending Violence against Women and Girls

Part of a series that assesses the role of laws and specific programs or interventions in ending violence against women.

Explore our Indicators


Examining constraints on women’s freedom of movement.


Analyzing laws affecting women’s decisions to enter and remain in the labor force.


Measuring laws and regulations concerning job restrictions and the gender wage gap.


Assessing legal constraints related to marriage.


Evaluating laws affecting women’s work after having children.


Examining constraints women face when starting and running a business.


Analyzing gender differences in property and inheritance law.


Assessing laws affecting the size of a woman’s pension.

Additional Information


Norman Loayza

Director, Global Indicators Group

Tea Trumbic

Program Manager, Women, Business and the Law, Global Indicators Group

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