Reforms

Women, Business and the Law tracks legal and regulatory changes for each of its eight indicators. A reform is considered any change in laws or regulations that results in an improvement of score from 0 to 1 in any of an indicator’s sub-questions.

Reforms published in the Women, Business and the Law 2023 report took place over the period from October 2, 2021 to October 1, 2022. Eighteen economies from all regions and income groups made the economic empowerment of women a priority by implementing reforms facilitating women's entrepreneurship and entry into the workforce. Over the same period, two economies implemented changes widening the legal gender gap.

Economies have implemented over 1600 reforms across all Women, Business and the Law indicators since 1971. Explore the reforms in the table below, or download the reform database here.

Type in the search bar to filter by economy, region, indicator, year or reform description.

EconomyRegionIndicatorReport YearName of the LawDate of EnactmentDate of Entry Into ForceType of ReformReform Description
AfghanistanSouth AsiaParenthood1989Labour Code of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan06/11/198706/11/1987PositiveAfghanistan prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
AfghanistanSouth AsiaPension1989Labour Code of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan06/11/198706/11/1987NegativeAfghanistan set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
AfghanistanSouth AsiaParenthood2000Labour Law of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan01/11/199901/11/1999NegativeAfghanistan no longer prohibits the dismissal of pregnant workers.
AfghanistanSouth AsiaPension2000Labor Code01/11/199901/11/1999PositiveAfghanistan equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
AfghanistanSouth AsiaParenthood2008Labor Code02/04/200702/04/2007PositiveAfghanistan introduced paid paternity leave.
AfghanistanSouth AsiaMobility2017Passport Law10/25/201510/25/2015PositiveAfghanistan enacted a new Passport Law which no longer requires a married woman to bring a guardian or written consent of her husband when applying for a passport.
AfghanistanSouth AsiaWorkplace2017Regulations Prohibiting the Harassment of Women10/03/201511/07/2015PositiveAfghanistan enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment and also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
AfghanistanSouth AsiaMobility 2023Executive Decree on Women's Rights12/03/202112/03/2021NegativeThe interim Taliban administration in Afghanistan restricted women’s right to travel outside the country in the same way as men.
AfghanistanSouth AsiaWorkplace2023Executive Decree on Women's Rights12/03/202112/03/2021NegativeThe interim Taliban administration in Afghanistan restricted women’s right to get a job in the same way as men.
AlbaniaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1994On Social Insurance in the Republic of Albania05/11/199306/11/1993PositiveAlbania increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
AlbaniaEurope & Central AsiaPension1994On Social Insurance in the Republic of Albania05/11/199306/11/1993PositiveAlbania explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
AlbaniaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2005Labor Code of Albania - Law No. 7961 of 12 July 199507/29/200307/29/2003PositiveAlbania prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
AlbaniaEurope & Central AsiaPension1997Labor Code of Albania - Law No. 7961 of 12 July 199507/07/199507/27/1995PositiveAlbania no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
AlbaniaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1997Labor Code of Albania - Law No. 7961 of 12 July 199507/12/199507/27/1995PositiveAlbania prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment and also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
AlbaniaEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2008Law No. 9669 of 18.12.2006 "On Measures against Violence in Family Relations"12/18/200606/01/2007PositiveAlbania enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
AlbaniaEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2011Law on Protection from Discrimination02/04/201003/12/2010PositiveAlbania introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
AlbaniaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2017Labor Code of Albania - Law No. 7961 of 12 July 199512/05/201512/05/2015PositiveAlbania introduced paid paternity leave.
AlbaniaEurope & Central AsiaPay2017Labor Code of Albania - Law No. 7961 of 12 July 199512/05/201512/05/2015PositiveAlbania mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
AlgeriaMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood1976Act No. 83-11 of 2 July 1983 on social insurance04/29/197505/16/1975PositiveAlgeria began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
AlgeriaMiddle East & North AfricaPension1984Law No. 83-12 of 2 July 1983 relating to retirement07/02/198301/01/1984PositiveAlgeria introduced an old-age pension system that does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. The new system set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
AlgeriaMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood1985Act No. 83-11 of 2 July 1983 on social insurance07/02/198307/02/1983PositiveAlgeria increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
AlgeriaMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood1991Act No. 90-11 of 21 April 1990 on Labor relations04/21/199004/21/1990PositiveAlgeria introduced paid paternity leave.
AlgeriaMiddle East & North AfricaPay1991Act No. 90-11 of 21 April 1990 on Labor relations04/21/199004/21/1990PositiveAlgeria mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
AlgeriaMiddle East & North AfricaPension1998Ordinance No. 97-13 of 31 May 1997 amending and supplementing Act No. 83-12 of 2 July 1983 on pensions05/31/199705/31/1997NegativeAlgeria set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
AlgeriaMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2006Ordinance n ° 05-02 of February 27, 2005 amending and supplementing Law n ° 84-11 of June 9, 1984 on the family code02/27/200502/27/2005PositiveAlgeria allowed women to be head of household. It no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
AlgeriaMiddle East & North AfricaMobility2006Ordinance n ° 05-02 of February 27, 2005 amending and supplementing Law n ° 84-11 of June 9, 1984 on the family code02/27/200502/27/2005PositiveAlgeria reformed its Family Code allowing a woman to leave the marital home without her husband's permission.
AlgeriaMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2006Law No. 04-15 of November 10, 2004 Amending and Supplementing Ordinance No. 66-156 of June 8, 1966 on the Penal Code11/10/200411/10/2004PositiveAlgeria enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment and also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
AlgeriaMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2017Act No. 15-19 of 30 December 2015 Amending and Supplementing Ordinance No. 66-156 of 8 June 1966 on the Criminal Code12/30/201512/30/2015PositiveAlgeria enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1983General Labour Law - Law 6/81 of 24 August11/11/198108/24/1981PositiveAngola prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1989Law No. 1/88 - Family Code02/20/198802/20/1988PositiveAngola granted spouses equal rights to immovable property.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship1989Law No. 1/88 - Family Code02/20/198802/20/1988PositiveAngola introduced a new Family Code allowing a woman to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1989Law No. 1/88 - Family Code02/20/198802/20/1988PositiveAngola allowed women to be head of household. It also gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1989Law No. 1/88 - Family Code02/20/198802/20/1988PositiveAngola introduced new Family Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1989Law No. 1/88 - Family Code02/20/198802/20/1988PositiveAngola allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2001General Labour Law No. 2/00 of 11 February 200002/11/200002/11/2000PositiveAngola mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2001General Labour Law No. 2/00 of 11 February 200002/11/200004/11/2000PositiveAngola prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2012Presidential Decree No. 08/1107/01/201107/01/2011PositiveAngola began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2013Notice N 12-2016 Protection of consumers of financial products and services 06/01/201106/01/2011PositiveAngola made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2013Law No. 25/11 - Against Domestic Violence06/21/201107/14/2011PositiveAngola enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2017Law No. 7/15 - General Labor Law06/15/201506/15/2015PositiveAngola introduced paid paternity leave.
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace 2022The Angolan Criminal Code11/11/202002/11/2021PositiveAngola enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
Antigua and BarbudaLatin America & CaribbeanPension1974The Social Security Act Cap. 40807/11/197207/11/1972PositiveAntigua and Barbuda introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Antigua and BarbudaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1977Antigua and Barbuda Labor Code (No. 14 of 1975) (Cap. 27)09/19/197509/19/1975PositiveAntigua and Barbuda prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Antigua and BarbudaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1998Divorce Act03/11/199705/01/1997PositiveAntigua and Barbuda allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as a man.
Antigua and BarbudaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2000Domestic Violence Act 2015 (No. 27 of 2015)02/18/199902/25/1999PositiveAntigua and Barbuda enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1976Law No. 20.744 - Law on Employment Contracts09/11/197409/27/1974PositiveArgentina prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanPension1976Law No. 20.744 - Law on Employment Contracts09/11/197409/20/1974NegativeArgentina set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanPay1977Law No. 20.744 - Law on Employment Contracts03/13/197603/13/1976PositiveArgentina mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1977Law No. 27440 on Promoting SMEs05/13/197605/13/1976PositiveArgentina prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1989Civil and Commercial Code06/03/198706/08/1987PositiveArgentina legalized divorce, equally granting the right to both spouses. There is no waiting period before remarriage for either spouse.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1989The Civil Code of 186906/03/198706/08/1987PositiveArgentina reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1989Law No. 23. 515 of 1987 amended Civil Code06/08/198706/12/1987PositiveArgentina allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanPay1993Law No. 24.013 Labor Law11/13/199112/05/1991PositiveArgentina lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1996Law No. 24.417 - Law on the Protection Against Family Violence12/07/199412/28/1994PositiveArgentina enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanAssets2005The Civil Code of 186910/01/200311/12/2003PositiveArgentina amended its civil code, granting spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2010Law No. 26.485 - Law on the Integral Protection of Women03/11/200904/01/2009PositiveArgentina enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanPension2019Law 27246, Retirement Mobility Index. Assets. Faculties12/28/201712/28/2017PositiveArgentina equalized the mandatory retirement age (70 years) for women and men.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanPension2022Integrated Retirement and Pension System Decree 475/202107/17/202107/19/2021PositiveArgentina explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship1989Law No. 23.515 of 1987 amending the Civil Code06/03/198706/08/1987PositiveArgentina enacted a Civil Code allowing a woman to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaPension1972Labor Code of the Republic of Armenia06/16/197210/01/1972NegativeArmenia set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1972Labor Code of the Republic of Armenia07/15/197001/01/1971PositiveArmenia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1974Labor Code06/16/197210/01/1972PositiveArmenia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaPension1997Law on State Pensions12/06/199512/06/1995PositiveArmenia no longer establishes an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaPension2004Law on State Pensions11/19/200201/01/2003PositiveArmenia explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaPay2006Labor Code of the Republic of Armenia11/09/200406/21/2005PositiveArmenia eliminated all restrictions on women's employment and lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2006Labor Code11/09/200406/21/2005PositiveArmenia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2007Labor Code of the Republic of Armenia10/24/200501/01/2006PositiveArmenia introduced paid parental leave.
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaPension2012Law on State Pensions12/22/201001/01/2011PositiveArmenia equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It also equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2012The Republic of Armenia Law HO-117 on Changes and Additions to the Labor Code of the Republic of Armenia06/24/201008/07/2010NegativeArmenia abrogated legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2019Law on Prevention of Domestic Violence, Protection of Victims of Domestic Violence and Restoration of Solidarity in the Family12/30/201701/31/2018PositiveArmenia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood 2022Labor Code of the Republic of Armenia09/16/202001/01/2021PositiveArmenia introduced paid paternity leave.
AustraliaHigh income: OECDAssets1977Family Law Act 197506/12/197501/06/1976PositiveAustralia recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
AustraliaHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship 1978Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 No 4804/28/197708/01/1984PositiveAustralia made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
AustraliaHigh income: OECDParenthood1982Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 No 4804/22/198104/22/1981PositiveAustralia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
AustraliaHigh income: OECDMobility1983Domicile Act 198203/04/198207/01/1982PositiveAustralia reformed its Domicile Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
AustraliaHigh income: OECDMobility1984Australian Passports Act 200501/13/198301/13/1983PositiveAustralia introduced new legal amendments which no longer requires a married woman her husband's permission when applying for a passport.
AustraliaHigh income: OECDWorkplace1985Sex Discrimination Act 198403/21/198403/21/1984PositiveAustralia prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It also enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
AustraliaHigh income: OECDPay1998Workplace Relations Act 1996 11/25/199611/25/1996PositiveAustralia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
AustraliaHigh income: OECDWorkplace1998Anti-Discrimination Amendment Act 199705/20/199709/04/1997PositiveAustralia enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
AustraliaHigh income: OECDMarriage2010Crimes (Domestic and Personal Violence) Act 2007 No 8012/07/200703/10/2008PositiveAustralia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
AustraliaHigh income: OECDParenthood2012Paid Parental Leave Act 201007/14/201010/01/2010PositiveAustralia increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks and its federal government began administering parental leave benefits. It also introduced paid parental leave.
AustraliaHigh income: OECDParenthood2014Paid Parental Leave and Other Legislation Amendment (Dad and Partner Pay and Other Measures) Act 201207/22/201207/22/2012PositiveAustralia introduced paid paternity leave.
AustraliaHigh income: OECDPension2016Social Security Act 199104/23/199107/01/2014PositiveAustralia equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
AustriaHigh income: OECDParenthood1975Maternity Leave Act of 197304/01/197404/01/1974PositiveAustria increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
AustriaHigh income: OECDMarriage1977General civil code for the entire German inheritance of the Austrian monarchy07/01/197507/01/1975PositiveAustria allowed women to be head of household. Austria no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
AustriaHigh income: OECDMobility1977General civil code for the entire German inheritance of the Austrian monarchy07/01/197507/31/1975PositiveAustria reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
AustriaHigh income: OECDAssets1980Law to standardize the right of marriage and divorce in the country of Austria and in the rest of the Reich. 6 July 1938.; Civil Code06/15/197806/15/1978PositiveAustria granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage. Austria also recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
AustriaHigh income: OECDParenthood1980Maternity Protection Act 197905/31/197905/31/1979PositiveAustria prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
AustriaHigh income: OECDPay1980Federal Act on Equal Treatment02/23/197903/15/1979PositiveAustria mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
AustriaHigh income: OECDWorkplace1980Federal Equal Treatment Act02/23/197903/15/1979PositiveAustria prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
AustriaHigh income: OECDMarriage1985Law to standardize the right of marriage and divorce in the country of Austria and in the rest of the Reich. 6 July 1938.11/11/198311/11/1983PositiveAustria gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
AustriaHigh income: OECDParenthood1992Paid Parental Leave Act 201006/27/199007/13/1990PositiveAustria introduced paid parental leave.
AustriaHigh income: OECDPension1994Federal Constitutional Law on Different Age Limits of Male and Female Social Insurance02/01/199303/02/1993NegativeAustria set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
AustriaHigh income: OECDWorkplace1994Federal Equal Treatment Act02/12/199303/01/1993PositiveAustria enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
AustriaHigh income: OECDMarriage1998Federal Law on protection against violence in the family - GeSchG12/30/199612/30/1996PositiveAustria enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
AustriaHigh income: OECDPay2004Federal Act No. 122/200208/01/200208/01/2002PositiveAustria lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
AustriaHigh income: OECDPension2006Federal Act of 9 September 1955 on General Social Insurance12/15/200401/01/2005PositiveAustria explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
AustriaHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2010Federal Act on Equal Treatment07/02/200807/02/2008PositiveAustria's new legal amendments made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
AustriaHigh income: OECDPay2010Ordinance of the Federal Minister of Economics and Labor on Employment bans and restrictions for women workers 07/31/200807/31/2008PositiveAustria eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night.
AustriaHigh income: OECDPension2015Federal Act of 9 September 1955 on General Social Insurance08/20/200306/01/2014PositiveAustria no longer establishes an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
AustriaHigh income: OECDParenthood2021Father's Leave Act07/01/201912/01/2019PositiveAustria introduced 30 days of paid paternity leave.
AzerbaijanEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1972Law on the Fundamentals of Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Labor07/15/197001/01/1971PositiveAzerbaijan prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
AzerbaijanEurope & Central AsiaPension1972Law on the Fundamentals of Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Labor07/15/197007/15/1970NegativeAzerbaijan set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
AzerbaijanEurope & Central AsiaPension1973Labor Code of the Azerbaijan Republic12/10/197106/01/1972PositiveAzerbaijan no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
AzerbaijanEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1973Labor Code of the Azerbaijan Republic12/10/197106/01/1972PositiveAzerbaijan prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
AzerbaijanEurope & Central AsiaPension1994Law Of Azerbaijan Republic On Citizens' Provision Of Pensions09/23/199201/01/1993PositiveAzerbaijan explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
AzerbaijanEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2001Labor Code of the Azerbaijan Republic02/01/199907/01/1999PositiveAzerbaijan introduced paid parental leave.
AzerbaijanEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2008Social Benefits Law10/10/200610/10/2006PositiveAzerbaijan introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
AzerbaijanEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2008Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on Guarantees of Gender (Men and Women) Equality10/10/200610/10/2006PositiveAzerbaijan enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
AzerbaijanEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2012The Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on Prevention of Domestic Violence06/22/201006/22/2010PositiveAzerbaijan enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Bahamas, TheLatin America & CaribbeanPension1973National Insurance Act12/12/197112/12/1971PositiveThe Bahamas introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Bahamas, TheLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1984Matrimonial Causes Act, Ch. 12501/01/198301/01/1983PositiveThe Bahamas amended the Matrimonial Causes Act to recognize the value of nonmonetary contributions.
Bahamas, TheLatin America & CaribbeanPension1986National Insurance (Benefits and Assistance) Regulations06/06/198410/01/1984PositiveThe Bahamas explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Bahamas, TheLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1989Employment Act, Ch. 321A03/29/198803/29/1988PositiveThe Bahamas prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Bahamas, TheLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1993Domestic Violence (Protection Orders) Act07/29/199108/02/1991PositiveThe Bahamas enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Bahamas, TheLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1993Sexual Offences Act07/29/199108/02/1991PositiveThe Bahamas enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
Bahamas, TheLatin America & CaribbeanAssets2003Inheritance Act (No. 3 of 2002)01/31/200202/01/2002PositiveThe Bahamas equalized inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
Bahamas, TheLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2003Employment Act, Ch. 321A12/31/200112/31/2001PositiveThe Bahamas prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood1978Amiri Decree-Law No. 23 of 197606/01/197608/15/1976PositiveBahrain prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaPension1978The Decree-Law promulgating the Law on Social Insurance06/29/197608/15/1976PositiveBahrain introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood1995Labour Law for the Private Sector10/04/199310/04/1993PositiveBahrain introduced paid paternity leave.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaMobility2007Law No. 21 of 2015, amending Passport Law No. 11 of 197507/13/200507/14/2005PositiveBahrain amended its Passport Law which no longer requires a married woman her husband's consent when applying for a passport.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2014Law No. 36 of 2012 The promulgation of the Labor Law in the private sector07/26/201207/26/2012PositiveBahrain prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2017Law No. 17 of 2015 on Protection from Domestic Violence05/08/201508/13/2015PositiveBahrain enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2019Family Law No. 19 of 201707/19/201708/01/2017PositiveBahrain began allowing women to be head of household.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2020Decree Law No. 59 of 2018 amending some provisions of Labor Code No. 36 of 201211/02/201811/29/2018PositiveBahrain enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaEntrepreneurship2021Central Bank of Bahrain's Directive No. OG/293/202008/26/202008/26/2020PositiveBahrain made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaPay2021Ministerial Order No. 32 of 201310/18/201910/18/2019PositiveBahrain eliminated restrictions on women's employment in arduous jobs.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaPension2021Social Insurance Organization Decision No. (1) of 202008/27/202008/29/2020PositiveBahrain explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension
benefits.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaPay2022Law No. 36 of 2012 The promulgation of the Labor Law in the private sector08/05/202108/06/2021PositiveBahrain mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value. It lifted restrictions on women’s ability to work at night. It also repealed provisions giving the relevant authority the power to prohibit or restrict women from working in certain jobs or industries.
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaPension2023Law No. 14 of 2022 amending the some provisions of the Social Security Law issued by Decree Law No. 24 of 197604/18/202205/24/2022PositiveBahrain equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
BangladeshSouth AsiaMobility1974Bangladesh Passport Order of 197302/08/197302/08/1973PositiveBangladesh introduced new legislation which no longer requires a married woman her husband's information when applying for a passport.
BangladeshSouth AsiaParenthood2008Labor Act10/11/200610/11/2006PositiveBangladesh increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
BangladeshSouth AsiaPay2008Labor Act10/11/200610/11/2006PositiveBangladesh lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
BangladeshSouth AsiaWorkplace2010Supreme Court of Bangladesh, BNWLA v. Government of Bangladesh, 14 May 2009, Petition No. 5916 of 200805/14/200905/14/2009PositiveBangladesh enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
BangladeshSouth AsiaMarriage2012Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Act, 201010/11/201010/12/2010PositiveBangladesh enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BarbadosLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1978Employment of Women (Maternity Leave) Act, Chapter 345A07/19/197607/19/1976PositiveBarbados prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
BarbadosLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1981Domicile Reform Act, Cap. 21301/01/198001/01/1980PositiveBarbados introduced the Domicile Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
BarbadosLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1983Family Law (Amendment) Act02/01/198202/01/1982PositiveBarbados' new Family Law Act explicitly recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
BarbadosLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1993Domestic Violence (Protection Orders) Act, Cap. 130A02/13/199202/13/1992PositiveBarbados enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BarbadosLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2019Employment Sexual Harassment (Prevention) Act, 201710/27/201712/15/2017PositiveBarbados enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
BarbadosLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2021Employment (Prevention of Discrimination) Act08/05/202008/05/2020PositiveBarbados prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
BelarusEurope & Central AsiaPension1972Labor Code of the Republic of Belarus07/15/197007/15/1970NegativeBelarus set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
BelarusEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1972Labor Code of the Republic of Belarus07/15/197101/01/1971PositiveBelarus prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
BelarusEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1974Labor Code of the Republic of Belarus dated 06/23/197206/23/197206/23/1972PositiveBelarus prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
BelarusEurope & Central AsiaPension1993Law on Pensions04/17/199201/01/1993PositiveBelarus explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
BelarusEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1995Labor Code of the Republic of Belarus12/15/199201/15/1993PositiveBelarus introduced paid parental leave.
BelarusEurope & Central AsiaPay1996Constitution of the Republic of Belarus03/15/199403/30/1994PositiveBelarus mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
BelarusEurope & Central AsiaPension1996Constitution of the Republic of Belarus11/11/199411/11/1994PositiveBelarus no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
BelarusEurope & Central AsiaPay2001Labor Code of the Republic of Belarus07/26/199901/01/2000PositiveBelarus lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
BelarusEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2015Law on Basic Activities Aimed at Offence Prevention01/04/201404/16/2014PositiveBelarus enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDMarriage1973Civil Code05/15/197205/15/1972PositiveBelgium abolished a waiting period for remarriage, giving women the same rights to remarry as men.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDAssets1978Civil Code07/14/197607/14/1976PositiveBelgium granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship1978Civil Code07/14/197607/14/1976PositiveBelgium amended its Civil Code allowing a woman to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDMobility1978Civil Code07/14/197607/14/1976PositiveBelgium introduced legislation allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDWorkplace1978Civil Code07/04/197607/04/1976PositiveBelgium allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDParenthood1996Royal Decree implementing Articles 15, 16 and 17 of the Law of 26 July 1996 on the modernisation of social security and ensuring the viability of statutory pension schemes.04/03/199505/10/1995PositiveBelgium prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDPension1998Labor Law12/23/199612/23/1996PositiveBelgium equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDParenthood1999Royal Decree on the introduction of a right to parental leave in the context of a career break10/29/199710/29/1997PositiveBelgium introduced paid parental leave.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDWorkplace2000Law on equal treatment between men and women with regard to working conditions, access to employment and opportunities for promotion, access to a self-employed profession and supplementary social security schemes05/07/199906/19/1999PositiveBelgium prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDMarriage2004Act on the allocation of family housing to a spouse or legal cohabitant who is a victim of physical violence by his or her partner, supplementing article 410 of the Criminal Code.01/28/200302/12/2003PositiveBelgium enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDWorkplace2004Law on the Welfare of Workers during the Performance of Their Work06/11/200207/01/2002PositiveBelgium enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2008Law against the discrimination between men and women 10 May 200705/10/200705/10/2007PositiveBelgium introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDPay2010Collective Labor Agreement No. 25 of 15 October 1975 on equal pay for men and women, as amended by the collective Labor agreement No. 25 Bis of 19 December 2001 and No. 25 Ter of 9 July 200807/09/200807/09/2008PositiveBelgium mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value
BelgiumHigh income: OECDPension2010Collective Labor Agreement No. 25 of 15 October 1975 on equal pay for men and women, as amended by the collective Labor agreement No. 25 Bis of 19 December 2001 and No. 25 Ter of 9 July 200807/09/200807/09/2008PositiveBelgium equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
BelgiumHigh income: OECDPay2012Law Related to Various Dispositions04/28/201005/10/2010PositiveBelgium eliminated restrictions on women's employment in mining. It also allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
BelizeLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1981Social Security Act10/04/197910/04/1979PositiveBelize began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
BelizeLatin America & CaribbeanPension1982Social Security Act12/15/198006/01/1981PositiveBelize introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
BelizeLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1994Domestic Violence Act12/23/199203/01/1993PositiveBelize enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BelizeLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1998Protection Against Sexual Harassment Act Chapter 10708/12/199610/01/1996PositiveBelize enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
BelizeLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2002Social Security Act11/28/200001/01/2001PositiveBelize increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
BelizeLatin America & CaribbeanAssets2003Supreme Court of Judicature Act02/23/200103/01/2001PositiveBelize reformed its Supreme Court of Judicature Act to recognize the value of nonmonetary contributions, including "any contribution made in the capacity of housewife, homemaker or parent."
BelizeLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2013Labor (Amendment) Act, 201104/13/201104/13/2011PositiveBelize prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaPension1974Order No. 73-3 of January 17, 1973 establishing and organizing the Beninese Social Security Office.01/12/197301/12/1973PositiveBenin introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1975Order No. 74-38 of May 9, 1974, amending Order No. 33 PR/MFPT of September 28, 1967, establishing the Labor Code05/09/197405/09/1974PositiveBenin prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaPay1999Act No. 98-004 of 27 January 1998 on the Labor Code.01/27/199801/27/1998PositiveBenin mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1999Act No. 98-004 of 27 January 1998 on the Labor Code.01/27/199801/27/1998PositiveBenin prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2004Law No. 98-019 on the Social Security Code in the Republic of Benin03/21/200303/21/2003NegativeBenin enacted new legislation that obliges employers to pay a portion of maternity benefits along with the social security system.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2006Law No. 2002 - 07 on the Persons and Family Code08/24/200408/24/2004PositiveBenin's new Family and Personal Code granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage. It also equalized inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2006Law No. 2002 - 07 on the Persons and Family Code08/24/200408/24/2004PositiveBenin introduced a Family Code allowing a woman to open a bank account in the same way as a man without her husband's consent.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2006Law No. 2002 - 07 on the Persons and Family Code08/24/200408/24/2004PositiveBenin allowed women to be head of household.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2006Law No. 2002 - 07 on the Persons and Family Code06/14/200406/14/2004PositiveBenin allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2008Act No. 2006-19 on the suppression of sexual harassment and the protection of victims in the Republic of Benin07/17/200609/05/2006PositiveBenin enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2013Act No. 2011-26 of 9 January 2012 on the prevention and punishment of violence against women09/27/201101/09/2012PositiveBenin enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2021Circular Note - Procedural Relief12/08/201912/08/2019PositiveBenin allowed women to apply for a passport in the same way as men.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaPay2022Inter-Ministerial Order 2021-096/MPMEPE/MTFP/MS/DC/SGM/DGT/DSSMST/DPEE/SA/012SGG21 establishing the nature of the work and the categories of businesses forbidden to pregnant women, nursing mothers and young people and the age limit to which the interdiction applies08/26/202108/26/2021PositiveBenin removed restrictions on women’s employment in construction. Women can now work in industrial jobs in the same way as men.
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2023Order No. 2349-5 Prohibiting any discrimination based on sex in access to credit from credit institutions, financial institutions of a banking nature and decentralized financial systems12/21/202112/21/2021PositiveBenin prohibited gender-based discrimination in financial services.
BhutanSouth AsiaParenthood2008Labor and Employment Act 200701/04/200702/20/2007PositiveBhutan prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
BhutanSouth AsiaPay2008Labor and Employment Act 200701/04/200702/20/2007PositiveBhutan mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
BhutanSouth AsiaWorkplace2008Labor and Employment Act 200701/04/200702/20/2007PositiveBhutan prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
BhutanSouth AsiaParenthood2011Acceptable Forms of Child Labour Regulation, 200911/11/200911/11/2009PositiveBhutan introduced paid paternity leave.
BhutanSouth AsiaMarriage2014Domestic Violence Prevention Act 201301/01/201303/18/2013PositiveBhutan enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1974Law No. 603 Family Code08/23/197204/02/1973PositiveBolivia granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship1974Law No. 603 Family Code08/23/197204/02/1973PositiveBolivia enacted a new Family Code allowing a woman to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1974Law No. 603 Family Code08/23/197204/02/1973PositiveBolivia no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1974Law No. 603 Family Code08/23/197204/02/1973PositiveBolivia enacted a new Family Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way a man.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1974Family Code of 197208/23/197204/02/1973NegativeBolivia introduced a legal provision that allows a husband to object to his wife's work.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1989Act No. 975, on employment security for pregnant women, of 2 March 198803/02/198803/02/1988PositiveBolivia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1997Law No. 1674 Against Family or Domestic Violence12/15/1995#N/APositiveBolivia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanPension2002Supreme Decree No. 25851 Pensions Law07/21/200007/21/2000PositiveBolivia introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanPension2009Law No. 3791 Universal Old Age Income11/28/200701/01/2008PositiveBolivia explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanPay2010Political Constitution of the Plurinational State of Bolivia01/25/200902/07/2009PositiveBolivia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship2012Law No. 045 Against Racism and All Forms of Discrimination10/08/201010/08/2010PositiveBolivia introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanPension2012Law No. 65 Pension Law12/10/201012/10/2010NegativeBolivia introduced an old-age pension system that sets unequal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2014Supreme Decree No. 1212 - Paternity Leave05/01/201205/02/2012PositiveBolivia introduced paid paternity leave.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2014Law No. 348 to Guarantee Women a Life Free from Violence03/09/201303/09/2013PositiveBolivia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2016Law No. 603 Family Code11/19/201408/06/2015PositiveBolivia abolished a waiting period for remarriage, giving women the same rights to remarry as men.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanPay2016Political Constitution of the Plurinational State of Bolivia06/10/201406/10/2014PositiveBolivia lifted restrictions on women’s ability to work at night and in jobs deemed dangerous.
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2016Law No. 603 Family Code11/19/2014#N/APositiveBolivia allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central AsiaPension2000Law on Pension and Disability Insurance of the Federation of Bosnia and Hertzegovina07/23/199807/31/1998PositiveBosnia and Herzegovina equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men. It no longer explicitly accounts for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2001Labor Law of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina10/27/199910/27/1999PositiveBosnia and Herzegovina introduced paid paternity leave.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2001Labor Law of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina10/27/199911/04/1999PositiveBosnia and Herzegovina prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central AsiaPay2004Law on Gender Equality in  Bosnia and Herzegovina05/21/200305/21/2003PositiveBosnia and Herzegovina mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2004Law on Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina05/21/200306/24/2003PositiveBosnia and Herzegovina enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2006Law on Protection from Domestic Violence in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina03/29/200504/07/2005PositiveBosnia and Herzegovina enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2011Law on Pension and Disability Insurance of the Federation of Bosnia and Hertzegovina03/25/201003/25/2010PositiveBosnia and Herzegovina's new legal amendments made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central AsiaPension2017Law on Pension and Disability Insurance of the Federation of Bosnia and Hertzegovina01/09/200912/31/2015PositiveBosnia and Herzegovina no longer establishes an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central AsiaPay2018Labor Law of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina03/31/201604/12/2016PositiveBosnia and Herzegovina allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central AsiaPension2019Law on Pension and Disability Insurance of the Federation of Bosnia and Hertzegovina02/21/201802/21/2018NegativeBosnia and Herzegovina adopted a new law that allows women and men to retire with partial benefits at ages 56 and 61 respectively. The ages are set to equalize in 2026.
BotswanaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1972Succession (Rights of the Surviving Spouse and Inheritance Family Provisions) Act12/14/197012/14/1970PositiveBotswana equalized inheritance rights for male and female surviving spouses.
BotswanaSub-Saharan AfricaPay1994Employment (Amendment) Act 1992. No. 26.09/05/199210/09/1992PositiveBotswana lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night and eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining.
BotswanaSub-Saharan AfricaPension1997Universal Pension and Orphan Care Act 199601/01/199601/01/1996PositiveBotswana introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
BotswanaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2006Abolition of Marital Power Act05/01/200505/01/2005PositiveBotswana granted spouses equal rights to immovable property. It also abolished marital power, granting spouses equal administrative authority over assets during the marriage.
BotswanaSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2006Abolition of Marital Power Act05/01/200505/01/2005PositiveBotswana abolished its marital power provision allowing a woman to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
BotswanaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2006Abolition of Marital Power Act05/01/200505/01/2005PositiveBotswana allowed women to be head of household.
BotswanaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2006Abolition of Marital Power Act05/01/200505/01/2005PositiveBotswana introduced new legislation abolishing the marital power provision to allow a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
BotswanaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2006Abolition of Marital Power Act05/01/200505/01/2005PositiveBotswana allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
BotswanaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2009Domestic Violence Act04/30/200804/30/2008PositiveBotswana enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1976Law No. 6.136, of November 7, 197411/07/197401/09/1975PositiveBrazil began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanPension1975Law No. 5.890, of June 8, 197306/30/197306/30/1973NegativeBrazil set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1979Civil Code12/26/197712/27/1977PositiveBrazil legalized divorce. The process is the same for women and men.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1990Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil10/08/198810/08/1988PositiveBrazil increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanPay1991Law No. 7855 of October of 198910/24/198910/24/1989PositiveBrazil allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men. It also eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining and ifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1991Law No. 7855 of October of 198910/24/198901/11/2003PositiveBrazil allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanPension2000Decree No. 3048/1999 - Social Security Regulation05/31/199905/31/1999PositiveBrazil explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2000Decree-Law No. 5452/1943 - Consolidation of Brazilian Labor Laws05/26/199905/26/1999PositiveBrazil prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2002Decree-Law No. 2848/1940 - Criminal Code05/15/200105/15/2001PositiveBrazil enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanAssets2003Civil Code01/10/200201/12/2003PositiveBrazil granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship2003Civil Code01/10/200201/12/2003PositiveBrazil introduced a new Civil Code allowing a woman to register a business in the same way as a man without her husband's consent.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2003Civil Code01/10/200201/12/2003PositiveBrazil allowed women to be head of household. Brazil gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanMobility2003Civil Code01/10/200201/12/2003PositiveBrazil introduced a new Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2008Law No. 11340 - Maria da Penha Law (Domestic Violence)08/07/200609/22/2006PositiveBrazil enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanPension2021Decree No. 10.410/2020, of June 30, 202006/30/202006/30/2020PositiveBrazil eliminated the possibility to retire with partial pension benefits. Previously, the ages at which men and women could retire with partial pension benefits were unequal.
Brunei DarussalamEast Asia & PacificPension1985Old Age and Disability Pensions Cap 1801/01/198401/01/1984PositiveBrunei Darussalam explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Brunei DarussalamEast Asia & PacificAssets2001Islamic Family Law03/26/200103/26/2001PositiveBrunei Darussalam recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
Brunei DarussalamEast Asia & PacificMarriage2001Married Women Act07/07/199908/01/1999PositiveBrunei Darussalam enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Brunei DarussalamEast Asia & PacificPay2011Employment Order, 200909/03/200909/03/2009PositiveBrunei Darussalam eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining and at night in industrial undertakings. It also lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1988Labor Code03/24/198601/01/1987PositiveBulgaria prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2002Labor Code03/16/200103/31/2001PositiveBulgaria introduced paid parental leave.
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaPay2002Labor Code03/16/200103/31/2001PositiveBulgaria mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2005Protection Against Discrimination Act09/30/200301/01/2004PositiveBulgaria made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2005Labor Code01/08/200401/08/2004PositiveBulgaria prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2005Protection Against Discrimination Act09/30/200301/01/2004PositiveBulgaria enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2006Protection Against Domestic Violence Act03/29/200504/01/2005PositiveBulgaria enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaPay2006Labor Code06/18/200408/01/2004PositiveBulgaria lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2010Labor Code12/19/200801/01/2009PositiveBulgaria introduced paid paternity leave.
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaPension2012Labor Code06/08/201006/18/2010NegativeBulgaria set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaPay2017Decree RD-07-4 of 15 June 201506/15/201506/15/2015PositiveBulgaria eliminated restrictions on women's employment in certain industries by limiting them to pregnant and nursing women.
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaPension2017Social Insurance Code07/28/201501/01/2016NegativeBulgaria set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1991Zatu an VII 13 of 16 November 1989 on the establishment and implementation of a code of persons and the family in Burkina Faso11/16/198908/04/1990PositiveBurkina Faso granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship1991Zatu an VII 13 of 16 November 1989 on the establishment and implementation of a code of persons and the family in Burkina Faso11/16/198908/04/1990PositiveBurkina Faso enacted a Family Code allowing a woman to open a bank account in the same way as a man without her husband's consent.
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1991Zatu an VII 13 of 16 November 1989 on the establishment and implementation of a code of persons and the family in Burkina Faso11/16/198908/04/1990PositiveBurkina Faso allowed women to be head of household.
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1991Zatu an VII 13 of 16 November 1989 on the establishment and implementation of a code of persons and the family in Burkina Faso11/16/198908/04/1990PositiveBurkina Faso allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1994Law no. 11-92 Labour Code12/22/199201/07/1993PositiveBurkina Faso prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan AfricaPay1994Law no. 11-92 Labour Code12/22/199201/07/1993PositiveBurkina Faso lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1994Law no. 11-92 Labour Code12/22/199212/22/1992PositiveBurkina Faso prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2006Law No. 033-2004 Labor Code of Burkina Faso09/14/200410/29/2004PositiveBurkina Faso enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship 2019Law No. 025-2018/AN, containing the Penal Code 05/31/201805/31/2018PositiveBurkina Faso made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2020Law No. 025-2018/AN, containing the Penal Code 05/31/201805/31/2018PositiveBurkina Faso enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BurundiSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1973Ministerial Order No. 110/172 - Duration of Vacation Leave with Pay and Circumstantial Leave11/18/197111/18/1971PositiveBurundi introduced paid paternity leave.
BurundiSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1994Decree-Law No. 1/024 - Reform of the Persons and Family Code04/28/199304/28/1993PositiveBurundi no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband. Burundi allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
BurundiSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1994Decree-Law No. 1/024 - Reform of the Persons and Family Code04/28/199304/28/1993PositiveBurundi introduced a new Family Law allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
BurundiSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1994Decree-Law No. 1/024 - Reform of the Persons and Family Code04/28/199304/28/1993PositiveBurundi allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
BurundiSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1995Decree Law No 1/037 of July 7, 1993 on the revision of the Burundian Labor Code07/07/199307/07/1993PositiveBurundi prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
BurundiSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1995Decree-Law No. 1-037 of July 7, 1993. 07/07/199307/07/1993PositiveBurundi prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
BurundiSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2010Law Num 1/05 of April 22, 2009 on the revision of the Penal Code04/22/200904/22/2009PositiveBurundi enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
BurundiSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2010Law Num 1/05 of April 22, 2009 on the revision of the Penal Code09/20/200804/22/2009PositiveBurundi enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
BurundiSub-Saharan AfricaPay2022Law No. 1/11 of November 24, 2020 revising the Decree Law No. 1/037 of July 7, 1993 revising the Labor Code of Burundi11/24/202011/24/2020PositiveBurundi mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1983Civil Code06/20/198106/20/1981PositiveCabo Verde granted spouses equal rights to immovable property.
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship1983Decree-Law 58-81 of June 20, 198106/20/198106/20/1981PositiveCabo Verde amended its Civil Code allowing a woman to sing a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1983Decree-Law 58-81 of June 20, 198106/20/198106/20/1981PositiveCabo Verde allowed women to be head of household.
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1983Decree-Law 58-81 of June 20, 198106/20/198106/20/1981PositiveCabo Verde amended its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1983Decree-Law 58-81 of June 20, 198106/20/198106/20/1981PositiveCabo Verde allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaPension1984Decree-Law No. 50/2009 Amending Decree-Law 05/200412/24/198212/24/1982PositiveCabo Verde introduced an old-age pension system that does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1999Civil Code06/30/199706/30/1997PositiveCabo Verde gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2005Penal Code11/18/200307/01/2004PositiveCabo Verde's Penal Code made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2005Act No. 84/VII/2011 on Gender Based Violence11/18/200303/01/2004PositiveCabo Verde enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaPension2005Decree-Law No. 5/2004 - Social Security02/16/200402/16/2004PositiveCabo Verde explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2005Penal Code07/21/200311/18/2003PositiveCabo Verde enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2009Legislative-Decree No. 5/2007 - Labor Code09/16/200704/16/2008PositiveCabo Verde prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2009Legislative-Decree No. 5/2007 - Labor Code10/16/200710/16/2007PositiveCabo Verde prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
CambodiaEast Asia & PacificAssets1991Civil Code of Cambodia07/17/198907/17/1989PositiveCambodia granted spouses equal rights to immovable property.
CambodiaEast Asia & PacificParenthood1995Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia09/21/199309/21/1993PositiveCambodia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
CambodiaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace1998Labor Law03/13/199703/13/1997PositiveCambodia prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It also enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
CambodiaEast Asia & PacificMarriage2007Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and the Protection of Victims10/24/200510/24/2005PositiveCambodia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
CambodiaEast Asia & PacificPay1998Labor Code 199703/13/199703/13/1997PositiveCambodia lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
CambodiaEast Asia & PacificEntrepreneurship2011Criminal Code11/30/200911/30/2009PositiveCambodia's Penal Code made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
CambodiaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2011Criminal Code11/30/200911/30/2009PositiveCambodia adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
CambodiaEast Asia & PacificPension2022Sub-Degree No. 32 On The Social Security Scheme of Pension Money Section For The Persons Who Are Under the Provisions of Labor Law 03/04/202103/04/2021PositiveCambodia introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
CameroonSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1994Labor Code08/14/199208/14/1992PositiveCameroon prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
CameroonSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2018Law No. 2016/007 of 12 July 2016 on the Penal Code07/12/201607/12/2016PositiveCameroon prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It also enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment and adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
CanadaHigh income: OECDParenthood1973Employment Insurance Act06/23/197106/27/1971PositiveCanada increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
CanadaHigh income: OECDAssets1976Family Law Act07/03/197507/03/1975PositiveCanada enacted the Family Law Reform Act, recognizing the value of nonmonetary contributions.
CanadaHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship1978Canadian Human Rights Act08/10/197703/01/1978PositiveCanada introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
CanadaHigh income: OECDMobility1979Family Law Act03/16/197803/31/1978PositiveCanada enacted the Family Reform Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
CanadaHigh income: OECDPension1979Canada Pension Plan01/01/198301/01/1983PositiveCanada explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
CanadaHigh income: OECDParenthood1986Canada Labor Code06/07/198506/07/1985PositiveCanada prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
CanadaHigh income: OECDWorkplace1986Canadian Human Rights Act#N/A#N/APositiveCanada enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
CanadaHigh income: OECDPay1988Ontario Pay Equity Act Cap P7, 199001/01/198701/01/1988PositiveCanada mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
CanadaHigh income: OECDMarriage1991Family Law Act#N/A#N/APositiveCanada enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
CanadaHigh income: OECDWorkplace1991Ontario Human Rights Code#N/A#N/APositiveCanada adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
CanadaHigh income: OECDParenthood1992Employment Insurance Act12/31/199012/31/1990PositiveCanada introduced paid parental leave.
CanadaHigh income: OECDParenthood2020Employment Insurance Act02/27/201803/17/2019PositiveCanada introduced a new parental leave sharing benefit that reserves 35 days of paid parental leave for the father.
Central African RepublicSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1977Collective Trade Agreement of the Central African Republic12/01/197512/01/1975PositiveThe Central African Republic introduced paid paternity leave.
Central African RepublicSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1999Law No. 97-013 on the Family Code11/11/199711/11/1997PositiveCentral African Republic granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
Central African RepublicSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship1999Law No. 97-013 on the Family Code11/11/199711/11/1997PositiveCentral African Republic introduced a new Family Code allowing a woman to open a bank account in the same way as a man without the representation of her husband.
Central African RepublicSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1999Law No. 10.001 of 6 January 2010 on the Central African Republic Penal Code\11/11/199711/11/1997PositiveThe Central African Republic gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
Central African RepublicSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1999Law No. 97-013 on the Family Code11/11/199711/11/1997PositiveThe Central African Republic allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
Central African RepublicSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2008Law No. 06.032 of 27 December 2006 on the protection of women against violence in the Central African Republic12/27/200609/01/2007PositiveCentral African Republic enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Central African RepublicSub-Saharan AfricaPension2008Decree No. 09.116 establishing the modalities of application of Law No. 06.035 of 28 December 2006 on the Social Security Code of the Central African Republic12/28/200612/28/2006PositiveThe Central African Republic equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Central African RepublicSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2008Law No. 06.032 of 27 December 2006 on the protection of women against violence in the Central African Republic12/27/200609/01/2007PositiveThe Central African Republic enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
Central African RepublicSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2010Act establishing the Labor Code of the Central African Republic01/29/200901/29/2009PositiveThe Central African Republic prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ChadSub-Saharan AfricaPension1979Decree No. 99/P/CSM of 26 April 1978 on the organization of the pension insurance scheme04/26/197801/01/1978PositiveChad introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
ChadSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1998Act No. 038/PR/96 of 11 December 1996 on the Labor Code 12/11/199612/11/1996PositiveChad prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
ChadSub-Saharan AfricaPay1998Act No. 038/PR/96 of 11 December 1996 on the Labor Code 12/11/199612/11/1996PositiveChad mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
ChadSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1998Act No. 038/PR/96 of 11 December 1996 on the Labor Code 12/11/199612/11/1996PositiveChad prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ChadSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2018Law No. 001/PR/2017 of 8 May 2017 on the Penal Code05/08/201705/08/2017PositiveChad enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
ChadSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2018Law No. 001/PR/2017 of 8 May 2017 on the Penal Code05/08/201705/08/2017PositiveChad enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
ChileHigh income: OECDParenthood1974Law No. 17928 of 1973 amended the Labor Code04/12/197304/12/1973PositiveChile increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
ChileHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship1991Civil Code06/09/198906/09/1989PositiveChile amended its Civil Code abolishing the marital power provision to allow a woman to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
ChileHigh income: OECDMarriage1991Civil Code06/09/198906/09/1989PositiveChile no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
ChileHigh income: OECDMobility1991Civil Code06/09/198906/09/1989PositiveChile amended its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
ChileHigh income: OECDWorkplace1991Law No. 18802 amended Civil Code05/23/198906/09/1989PositiveChile allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
ChileHigh income: OECDPay1995Law 19250 AMENDS BOOKS I, II AND V OF THE LABOR CODE, ARTICLE 2472 OF THE CIVIL CODE AND OTHER LEGAL TEXTS09/23/199312/01/1993PositiveChile allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men. It also eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining.
ChileHigh income: OECDWorkplace2003Law 19759 of 200109/27/200111/01/2001PositiveChile prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ChileHigh income: OECDWorkplace2006Law No. 20005 - Sexual Harassment03/08/200503/18/2005PositiveChile enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
ChileHigh income: OECDMarriage2007Law No. 20066 - Intrafamiliar Violence Law09/22/200510/07/2005PositiveChile enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
ChileHigh income: OECDParenthood2007Ordinance Nº 3846-104 of 200509/05/200509/05/2005PositiveChile introduced paid paternity leave.
ChileHigh income: OECDPension2009Law No. 20255 - Social Security Reform03/11/200803/11/2008PositiveChile explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
ChileHigh income: OECDParenthood2013Law No. 20545 of 201110/17/201110/17/2011PositiveChile introduced paid parental leave.
ChileHigh income: OECDMarriage2021Law 21.264 of 2021 Eliminating the Waiting Period for Remarrying09/04/202009/04/2020PositiveChile gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
ChinaEast Asia & PacificParenthood1990Regulations on Labour Protection for Female Workers and Employees06/28/199809/01/1988PositiveChina prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
ChinaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace1996Labor Law of the People's Republic of China (Consolidated)01/01/199501/01/1995PositiveChina prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ChinaEast Asia & PacificParenthood2003Measures of Shanghai Urban Maternity Insurance10/10/200111/01/2001PositiveChina introduced a social security system that administers maternity benefits.
ChinaEast Asia & PacificParenthood2005Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Population and Family Planning12/31/200304/15/2004PositiveChina increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
ChinaEast Asia & PacificMarriage2007Law on the Protection of Women's Rights and Interests of the People's Republic of China08/28/200512/01/2005PositiveChina enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
ChinaEast Asia & PacificPension2009Interim Measures of the State Council on Workers' Retirement and Resignation06/29/200701/01/2008NegativeChina set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
ChinaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2013Special Provisions on the Labor Protection of Female Employees04/28/201204/28/2012PositiveChina enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
ChinaEast Asia & PacificParenthood2023Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Population and Family Planning 202211/25/202111/25/2021PositiveChina introduced paid parental leave.
ColombiaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1976Law No. 84 Civil Code12/30/197402/06/1975PositiveColombia no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
ColombiaLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1976Law No. 84 Civil Code12/30/197402/06/1975PositiveColombia reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
ColombiaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1977Law No. 84 Civil Code01/19/197602/18/1976PositiveColombia allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
ColombiaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1998Law No. 294 of 1996 Prevention of intrafamiliar violence07/16/199607/22/1996PositiveColombia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
ColombiaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2002Law No. 84 Civil Code10/25/200010/25/2000PositiveColombia gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
ColombiaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2004Law No. 755 of July 23 of 2002 on Paternity Leave (Ley Maria)07/23/200207/23/2002PositiveColombia introduced paid paternity leave.
ColombiaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2007Law No. 1010 of 2006 on Sexual Harassment in Employment01/23/200601/23/2006PositiveColombia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
ColombiaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2013Labor Code06/30/201106/30/2011PositiveColombia increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
ColombiaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2013Labor Code12/29/201112/29/2011PositiveColombia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ColombiaLatin America & CaribbeanPay2018Labor Code10/26/201610/26/2016PositiveColombia allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
ColombiaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2022Law Num. 2114 of July 29, 202107/29/202107/29/2021PositiveColombia introduced paid parental leave.
ComorosSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1983Act No. 84-10 of 15 May 1984 Act on civil status02/18/198405/15/1984PositiveComoros increased the duration of paid maternity leave to 14 weeks.
ComorosSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1985Act No. 84-10 of 15 May 1984 Act on civil status02/18/198405/15/1984PositiveComoros prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
ComorosSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1985Act No. 84-108 on the Labor Code02/18/198402/18/1984PositiveComoros prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ComorosSub-Saharan AfricaPay2014Law No. 12 Repealing, Amending and Supplementing Certain Provisions of Law No. 84-108/pr on the Labor Code06/28/201206/28/2012PositiveComoros mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
ComorosSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2014Law No. 12 Repealing, Amending and Supplementing Certain Provisions of Law No. 84-108/pr on the Labor Code06/28/201209/06/2012PositiveComoros enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
ComorosSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2016Decree No. 15 - 058/PR promulgating Law No. 14-036/AU of 22 December 2014 on the prevention and repression of violence against women in the Union of the Comoros12/22/201405/02/2015PositiveComoros enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
ComorosSub-Saharan AfricaPension2016Decree No. 14-176/PR12/05/201412/05/2014PositiveComoros introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaAssets1989Act No. 87.010 of 1 August 1987 on the Family Code08/01/198708/01/1988PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo equalized inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1989Act No. 87.010 of 1 August 1987 on the Family Code08/01/198708/01/1988NegativeThe Democratic Republic of Congo introduced a new family law that obliges a married woman to obey her husband.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2000Act No. 02-15 of 16 October 2002 on the Labor Code10/16/200210/25/2002PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2004Act No. 02-15 of 16 October 2002 on the Labor Code10/16/200210/25/2002PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaPay2004Act No. 02-15 of 16 October 2002 on the Labor Code10/16/200210/25/2002PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2004Act No. 02-15 of 16 October 2002 on the Labor Code10/16/200210/25/2002PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2017Law No. 15/013 of 1 August 2015 on the Implementation of Women's Rights and Parity08/01/201508/01/2015PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2017Law No. 15/013 of 1 August 2015 on the Implementation of Women's Rights and Parity08/01/201508/01/2015PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2018Law No 16/008 Amending and Complementing Law No. 87-010 of August 1, 1987 on the Family Code07/15/201607/15/2016PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo amended its Family Code allowing a woman to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2018Law No 16/008 Amending and Complementing Law No. 87-010 of August 1, 1987 on the Family Code07/15/201607/15/2016PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaMobility2018Law No 16/008 Amending and Complementing Law No. 87-010 of August 1, 1987 on the Family Code07/15/201607/15/2016PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo reformed its Family Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaPay2018Law No. 16-010 of July 15, 2016 amending and supplementing Law No. 15-2002 on the labor code07/15/201607/15/2016PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2018Law No 16/008 Amending and Complementing Law No. 87-010 of August 1, 1987 on the Family Code07/15/201607/15/2016PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2020Law No. 16-009 establishing the rules relating to the general social security scheme07/15/201607/15/2018PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo introduced social insurance maternity benefits. Maternity leave is now paid by the government instead of the employer.
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaPension2020Law No. 16-009 establishing the rules relating to the general social security scheme07/15/201607/15/2018PositiveThe Democratic Republic of Congo equalized the retirement age (60 years) for women and men and established pension credits for periods of child care.
Congo, Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship1986Law NO. 073/84 OF 17/10/1984 ON THE FAMILY CODE 10/17/198410/17/1984PositiveCongo, Rep. introduced a Family Code allowing a woman to open a bank account in the same way as a man without her husband's consent.
Congo, Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1986Law NO. 073/84 OF 17/10/1984 ON THE FAMILY CODE 10/17/198410/17/1984PositiveCongo, Rep. allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
Congo, Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaPension1987Act No. 004-86 of 25 February 1986 on the Social Security Code02/25/198602/25/1986PositiveCongo, Rep. explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Congo, Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2023Law No. 19-2022 on the fight against violence against women in the Republic of Congo05/04/202205/19/2022PositiveThe Republic of Congo enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Congo, Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2023Law No. 19-2022 on the fight against violence against women in the Republic of Congo05/04/202205/19/2022PositiveThe Republic of Congo enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment, including criminal penalties for such conduct.
Costa RicaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1975Family Code12/21/197308/05/1974PositiveCosta Rica introduced divorce by mutual consent. The process is equal for women and men. Also, it no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
Costa RicaLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1975Family Code12/21/197308/05/1974PositiveCosta Rica allowed women to choose where to live in the same way as men.
Costa RicaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1987Law No. 2/1943 Labor Code04/23/198604/23/1986PositiveCosta Rica increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
Costa RicaLatin America & CaribbeanPension1996Law No. 2/1943 Labor Code04/19/199504/19/1995PositiveCosta Rica explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Costa RicaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1996Law No. 7476/1995 - Law against Sexual Harassment in Employment and Education03/02/199503/03/1995PositiveCosta Rica enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Costa RicaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1997Law No. 7586/1996 - Domestic Violence04/10/199605/02/1996PositiveCosta Rica enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Costa RicaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2009Family Code02/14/200802/14/2008PositiveThe Supreme Court of Costa Rica annulled a waiting period for women before remarriage.
Costa RicaLatin America & CaribbeanPay2020REFORM OF Law No. 7142, Law FOR THE PROMOTION OF SOCIAL EQUALITY FOR WOMEN, OF MARCH 8, 199003/26/201903/26/2019PositiveCosta Rica mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
Costa RicaLatin America & CaribbeanPay2021Law No. 2/1943 Labor Code10/01/201910/29/2019PositiveCosta Rica lifted the ban on women's night work.
Costa RicaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2023Law to combat labor discrimination against women in maternity condition05/05/202205/05/2022PositiveCosta Rica introduced paid paternity leave.
Costa RicaLatin America & CaribbeanPay2023Freedom of Employment Choice of Women03/07/202203/07/2022PositiveCosta Rica removed restrictions on women's employment in jobs deemed dangerous.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship1985Law No. 83-1983 amended Marriage Law of 196408/02/198308/02/1983PositiveCôte d'Ivoire amended its Marriage Law allowing a woman to open a bank account in the same way as a man without her husband's consent.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1996Law No. 95-15 of January 12, 1995 Establishing the Labor Code01/12/199501/12/1995PositiveCôte d'Ivoire prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaPay1996Law No. 95-15 of January 12, 1995 Establishing the Labor Code01/12/199501/12/1995PositiveCôte d'Ivoire mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1996Law No. 95-15 of January 12, 1995 Establishing the Labor Code01/12/199501/12/1995PositiveCôte d'Ivoire prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2000Law No. 81-640 Of July 31, 1981 Establishing the Penal Code12/23/199812/23/1998PositiveCôte d'Ivoire enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2014Law No. 2013 of January 25, 2013 Repealing Article 53 and Modifying Articles 58, 59, 60 and 67 of Law No. 64-64-375 of October 7, 1964 relating to Marriage as Amended by Law No. 83-80001/25/201301/25/2013PositiveCôte d'Ivoire allowed women to be head of household.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2014Interministerial Order No. 022/MEMIS/MEMAE/MPMEF of January 14, 2013, amending Article 4 of Order No. 165/MI/MEF of May 15, 2008 setting, for applications made in Cote d'Ivoire, the conditions for the establishment and issuance of the ordinary national passport01/14/201301/14/2013PositiveCôte d'Ivoire allowed women to apply for a passport in the same way as men. It also allowed women to choose where to live in the same way as men.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2014Law No. 2013 of January 25, 2013 Repealing Article 53 and Modifying Articles 58, 59, 60 and 67 of Law No. 64-64-375 of October 7, 1964 relating to Marriage as Amended by Law No. 83-80001/25/201301/25/2013PositiveCôte d'Ivoire allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaPay2019Decree No. 2018-272 of 7 March 2018 on work forbidden to women and pregnant women03/07/201803/07/2018NegativeIvory Coast introduced restrictions for women's employment in certain industries, including mining.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2020Law No. 2019-570 of 26 June 2019 relating to marriage06/26/201906/26/2019PositiveCôte d’Ivoire granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2023Law No. 2021-893 of 21 December 2021 modifying the Penal Code12/21/202101/13/2022PositiveCôte d'Ivoire prohibited gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2023Law on measures for the protection of victims of domestic violence, rape and sexual violence other forms of violence12/21/202112/21/2022PositiveCôte d'Ivoire enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaPay2023Decree No. 2021-919 of 22 December 2021 concerning the protection of pregnant women in employment12/22/202101/24/2022PositiveCôte d'Ivoire eliminated all restrictions on women’s employment. Women can now work in industrial jobs and in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
CroatiaEurope & Central AsiaPension1991Law on Labor Relations of 27 April 199004/27/199004/27/1990PositiveCroatia equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
CroatiaEurope & Central AsiaPay1996Labor Law05/17/199501/01/1996PositiveCroatia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
CroatiaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1996Labor Act (No. 758/95)05/17/199501/01/1996PositiveCroatia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
CroatiaEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2005Law on Protection Against Domestic Violence 07/18/200307/30/2003PositiveCroatia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
CroatiaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2005Law No. 114/03 on Amendments to the Labor Law07/14/200307/16/2003PositiveCroatia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
CroatiaEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2009Law on Gender Equality07/09/200807/15/2008PositiveCroatia's Anti-Discrimination Act made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
CroatiaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2010Law on Maternal and Parental Benefits07/15/200801/01/2009PositiveCroatia introduced paid paternity leave. It also introduced paid parental leave.
CroatiaEurope & Central AsiaPay2011Labor Law12/04/200901/01/2010PositiveCroatia eliminated restrictions on women's employment in certain industries, including the mining and water industries. It also lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
CyprusEurope & Central AsiaPension1974Social Insurance Law 2010 (59(I)/2010)12/29/197212/29/1972PositiveCyprus explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
CyprusEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1988Maternity Protection Law 1997 (100(I)/1997)04/10/198705/27/1988PositiveCyprus prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
CyprusEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1989Maternity Protection Law 1997 (100(I)/1997)05/27/198805/27/1988PositiveCyprus increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
CyprusEurope & Central AsiaPay1991Equal Pay between Men and Women for the Same Work or Work of Equal Value Law 2002 (177(I)/2002)05/05/198905/05/1992PositiveCyprus mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
CyprusEurope & Central AsiaAssets1992Law Regulating Property Relations of Spouses 1991 (232/1991)06/13/190506/13/1905PositiveCyprus recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
CyprusEurope & Central AsiaMarriage1996Violence in the Family (Prevention and Protection of Victims) Law of 1994 (47(I)/1994)06/17/1994#N/APositiveCyprus enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
CyprusEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2004Equal Treatment of Men and Women in Employment and Vocational Training Law 2002 (205(I)/2002)12/06/200205/01/2004PositiveCyprus prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties and civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
CyprusEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2009Equal Treatment of Men and Women (Access to Goods and Services) Act 2008 (18(I)/2008)05/02/200805/02/2008PositiveCyprus introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
CyprusEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2019Protection of the Paternity Law 2017 (117(I)/2017)07/24/201708/01/2017PositiveCyprus introduced 10 days of paid paternity leave.
CyprusEurope & Central AsiaMobility2022Passport application form; Passport application procedures10/26/202010/26/2020PositiveCyprus allowed women to apply for a passport in the same way as men.
CzechiaHigh income: OECDPay1981Labor Code12/31/198012/31/1980PositiveCzechia allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
CzechiaHigh income: OECDParenthood1992Labor Code09/18/199010/01/1990PositiveCzechia introduced paid parental leave.
CzechiaHigh income: OECDPay1996Labor Code05/31/199406/01/1994PositiveCzechia lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
CzechiaHigh income: OECDMarriage2007Domestic Violence Act04/14/200601/01/2007PositiveCzechia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
CzechiaHigh income: OECDWorkplace2008Labor Code06/07/200601/01/2007PositiveCzechia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
CzechiaHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2009Anti-Discrimination Act04/23/200804/23/2008PositiveCzechia's Anti-Discrimination Act made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
CzechiaHigh income: OECDWorkplace2010Anti-Discrimination Act06/29/200909/01/2009PositiveCzechia enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
CzechiaHigh income: OECDPay2013The Act Establishing the Conditions for the Protection of Health at Work03/26/201204/01/2012PositiveCzechia eliminated restrictions on women's employment in manufacturing.
CzechiaHigh income: OECDParenthood2019Penal Code05/01/201602/01/2018PositiveCzechia introduced five days of paid paternity leave.
CzechiaHigh income: OECDWorkplace2007Labor Code06/07/200601/01/2007PositiveCzechia prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It also enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
DenmarkHigh income: OECDMarriage1971Act on Marriage and Dissolution06/04/196906/04/1969PositiveDenmark gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
DenmarkHigh income: OECDParenthood1986Act on Equal treatment of men and women in employment and maternity leave, sickness or maternity benefits; Act on Law on Childcare leave07/01/198407/01/1984PositiveDenmark introduced paid paternity leave. It also introduced paid parental leave.
DenmarkHigh income: OECDParenthood1990Act on Equal Treatment of Men and Women in Employment04/19/198905/01/1989PositiveDenmark prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
DenmarkHigh income: OECDPension1993Labor Market Supplementary Pension Act of 10 October 201405/20/199205/20/1992PositiveDenmark explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
DenmarkHigh income: OECDWorkplace1999Act No. 213 of 1998, Act on Equal Treatment of Men and Women as regards Access to Employment and Maternity Leave04/03/199804/03/1998PositiveDenmark prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
DenmarkHigh income: OECDWorkplace2001Act No. 388 of 2000 on Equality Between Women and Men 05/30/200006/01/2000PositiveDenmark enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
DenmarkHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2009Act on Equality Between Women and Men09/19/200709/19/2007PositiveDenmark introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
DenmarkHigh income: OECDPay2009Act on Equal Pay for Men and Women09/05/200809/05/2008PositiveDenmark mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
DenmarkHigh income: OECDMarriage2013Criminal Code02/03/201203/01/2012PositiveDenmark enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
DjiboutiMiddle East & North AfricaPension1991Law No. 154/AN/02/4th L codifying the functioning of the OPS and the general pension scheme for salaried workers06/19/198906/19/1989PositiveDjibouti introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
DjiboutiMiddle East & North AfricaEntrepreneurship1996Penal Code01/05/199501/05/1995PositiveDjibouti's Penal Code made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
DjiboutiMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2006Labor Code01/28/200601/28/2006PositiveDjibouti prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
DjiboutiMiddle East & North AfricaPay2007Labor Code01/28/200601/28/2006PositiveDjibouti mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
DjiboutiMiddle East & North AfricaPension2010Law No. 17/AN/08/6th L modifying the retirement age10/11/200810/11/2008PositiveDjibouti equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
DjiboutiMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2019Law No. 66/AN/719/8th L on the Protection, Prevention and Care of Women and Children Victims of Violence04/12/201804/12/2018PositiveDjibouti enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
DjiboutiMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2020Law No. 221/AN/17/8th L amending and supplementing Law No. 133/AN/05/5th L of 28 January 2006 establishing the Labor Code06/25/201806/25/2018PositiveDjibouti enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
DominicaLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1974The Matrimonial Causes Act of 197305/23/197301/01/1974PositiveDominica recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
DominicaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1974The Matrimonial Causes Act of 197305/23/197301/01/1974PositiveDominica allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
DominicaLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1975The Domicile and Matrimonial Proceedings Act of 197307/25/197301/01/1974PositiveDominica allowed women to choose where to live in the same way as men.
DominicaLatin America & CaribbeanPension1977Social Security (Benefit) Regulations01/29/197601/29/1976PositiveDominica introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
DominicaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2003Protection against Domestic Violence Act No. 22 of 200101/29/200201/31/2002PositiveDominica enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship1980Law No. 855 of 1977 amended the Labor Code07/22/197807/22/1978PositiveDominican Republic amended its Civil Code allowing a woman to sing a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1980Law No. 855 of 1977 amended the Labor Code07/22/197807/22/1978PositiveDominican Republic no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1980Law No. 855 of 1977 amended the Labor Code07/22/197807/22/1978PositiveDominican Republic reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1980Law No. 855 of 1977 amended the Labor Code07/22/1978#N/APositiveThe Dominican Republic allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1993Law No. 16-92 Labor Code05/29/199205/29/1992PositiveThe Dominican Republic introduced paid paternity leave.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanPay1993Law No. 16-92 Labor Code05/29/199205/29/1992PositiveThe Dominican Republic lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1993Law No. 16-92 Labor Code05/29/199205/31/1992PositiveThe Dominican Republic prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It also enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1998Law No. 24-97 on Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence01/27/199701/28/1997PositiveDominican Republic enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1998Law No. 24-97 on Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence01/27/199701/28/1997PositiveThe Dominican Republic adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanAssets2003Law No. 189-01 (Amendment to Civil Code on Marital Regime)11/22/200111/22/2001PositiveThe Dominican Republic granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship2016Regulations on the Protection of Users of Financial Products and Services02/05/201504/20/2015PositiveDominican Republic's new legal amendments made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2016Case TC/0070/1504/16/201504/16/2015PositiveThe Dominican Republic gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2018Law No. 16-92 Labor Code07/09/201402/09/2017PositiveThe Dominican Republic increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1972Civil Code11/20/197011/20/1970PositiveEcuador removed provisions designating the husband as administrator of property, granting spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship1972Civil Code11/20/197011/20/1970PositiveEcuador amended its Civil Code allowing a woman to sing a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1972Civil Code of 197011/20/1970#N/APositiveEcuador allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanPension1990Social Security Law09/08/198809/08/1988PositiveEcuador introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1991Civil Code08/18/198908/18/1989PositiveEcuador no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1991Civil Code08/18/198908/18/1989PositiveEcuador reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1997Law No. 103 of 1995 on Violence against Women and the Family12/11/199512/11/1995PositiveEcuador enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanPay2000Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador06/05/199806/05/1998PositiveEcuador mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2000Penal Code of 197107/21/199807/21/1998PositiveEcuador enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties and civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanPension2003Social Security Law11/30/200111/30/2001PositiveEcuador explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2007Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador12/16/200501/01/2006PositiveEcuador introduced paid paternity leave.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2010Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador09/28/200810/20/2008PositiveEcuador prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2017Civil Code06/16/201506/19/2015PositiveEcuador amended its Civil Code to allow women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men. A waiting period for women of 300 days before remarriage was also abolished.
Egypt, Arab Rep.Middle East & North AfricaMarriage1987Egypt's Personal Status Law No. 100 of 198507/03/198505/16/1985NegativeEgypt, Arab Rep. introduced a new personal status law that obliges a married woman to obey her husband.
Egypt, Arab Rep.Middle East & North AfricaParenthood2004Labor Law No. 12 of 200304/07/200304/07/2003PositiveEgypt, Arab Rep. prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Egypt, Arab Rep.Middle East & North AfricaPension1997Law No. 12 of 1996 Promulgating the Child Law Amended by Law No. 126 of 200803/25/199603/25/1996PositiveEgypt, Arab Rep. explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Egypt, Arab Rep.Middle East & North AfricaMobility2002Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court’s Decision No. 243 for Judicial Year No. 2111/04/200011/04/2000PositiveEgypt, Arab Rep.'s Constitutional Court Decision removed restriction for a married woman to travel abroad without her husband's permission.
Egypt, Arab Rep.Middle East & North AfricaWorkplace2004Labor Law No. 12 of 200304/07/200304/07/2003PositiveEgypt, Arab Rep. prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Egypt, Arab Rep.Middle East & North AfricaWorkplace2016Law No. 50 of 2014 amending Some Provisions of the Penal Code Promulgated by Law No. 58 of 193706/05/201406/06/2014PositiveEgypt, Arab Rep. enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
Egypt, Arab Rep.Middle East & North AfricaEntrepreneurship2022The Central Bank of Egypt’s Circular of April 22, 202104/22/202104/22/2021PositiveEgypt, Arab Rep. made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Egypt, Arab Rep.Middle East & North AfricaMarriage2022Prime Minister's Decision No. 827 of 2021 to Establish Units of Violence against Women04/18/202104/18/2021PositiveEgypt, Arab Rep. enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
El SalvadorLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1995Family Code10/11/199310/01/1994PositiveEl Salvador recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
El SalvadorLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1995Family Code10/11/199310/01/1994PositiveEl Salvador no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband. El Salvador allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
El SalvadorLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1995Family Code10/11/199310/01/1994PositiveEl Salvador introduced a new Family Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
El SalvadorLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1995Labor Code04/29/199405/20/1994PositiveEl Salvador prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
El SalvadorLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1998Domestic Violence Act12/20/199612/28/1996PositiveEl Salvador enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
El SalvadorLatin America & CaribbeanPension1998Pension Savings System Act12/20/199612/28/1996PositiveEl Salvador explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
El SalvadorLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1998Penal Code04/26/199706/10/1997PositiveEl Salvador enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
El SalvadorLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship2007Decree No. 776 Law on Consumer Protection08/18/200510/08/2005PositiveEl Salvador enacted a new Consumer Protection Law that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
El SalvadorLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2009Social Security Act12/20/200701/01/2008PositiveEl Salvador began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
El SalvadorLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2014Decree Num. 376 that reforms the Labor Code05/28/201306/08/2013PositiveEl Salvador introduced paid paternity leave.
El SalvadorLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2017Labor Code10/23/201502/23/2016PositiveEl Salvador increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
Equatorial GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1985Decree No. 100/1990 of 28 September 1990 approving the regulations of the general social security scheme03/10/198403/10/1984PositiveEquatorial Guinea began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
Equatorial GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaPension1985Decree No. 100/1990 of 28 September 1990 approving the regulations of the general social security scheme03/10/198403/10/1984PositiveEquatorial Guinea introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Equatorial GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1991Law No. 10/2.012, dated 24 December, on the Reform of the General Labor Law01/04/199003/04/1990PositiveEquatorial Guinea prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Equatorial GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1991Law No. 2/1990, dated January 4, on General Labor Regulations01/04/199001/11/2003PositiveEquatorial Guinea prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Equatorial GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2014Law No. 10/2.012, dated 24 December, on the Reform of the General Labor Law12/24/201203/27/2012PositiveEquatorial Guinea introduced paid paternity leave.
Equatorial GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2014Law No. 10/2.012, dated 24 December, on the Reform of the General Labor Law12/24/201203/27/2012PositiveEquatorial Guinea mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
EritreaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1993Transitional Civil Code of Eritrea of 199109/15/199109/15/1991PositiveEritrea granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
EritreaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1993Transitional Civil Code of Eritrea of 199109/15/199109/15/1991PositiveEritrea allowed women to be head of household. Eritrea no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
EritreaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1993Transitional Civil Code of Eritrea of 199109/15/199109/15/1991PositiveEritrea introduced the Transitional Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
EritreaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1994Labor Proclamation of Eritrea01/20/199301/20/1993PositiveEritrea prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
EritreaSub-Saharan AfricaPay1994Labour Proclamation No. 42/199301/20/199301/20/1993NegativeEritrea prohibited women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
EritreaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2003Labor Proclamation of Eritrea11/15/200111/15/2001PositiveEritrea allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men and lifted restrictions on women's employment in industrial jobs.
EritreaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1994Labor Proclamation of Eritrea01/20/199301/20/1993PositiveEritrea prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
EstoniaHigh income: OECDPension1972The Law of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of July 15, 1970 on the Approval of the Fundamentals of Labour Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics07/15/197001/01/1971NegativeEstonia set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
EstoniaHigh income: OECDParenthood1972The Law of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of July 15, 1970 on the Approval of the Fundamentals of Labour Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics07/15/197001/01/1971PositiveEstonia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
EstoniaHigh income: OECDParenthood1993Employment Contracts Act of 15 April 199204/15/199207/03/1992PositiveEstonia introduced paid parental leave.
EstoniaHigh income: OECDPay1993Employment Contracts Act of 15 April 199204/15/199207/03/1992PositiveEstonia lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
EstoniaHigh income: OECDPension1993Employment Contracts Act of 15 April 199204/15/199207/03/1992PositiveEstonia no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
EstoniaHigh income: OECDParenthood2003Employment Contracts Act04/04/200101/01/2002PositiveEstonia introduced paid paternity leave.
EstoniaHigh income: OECDPension2003State Pension Insurance Act01/29/200303/10/2003PositiveEstonia explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
EstoniaHigh income: OECDPay2005Gender Equality Act04/07/200405/01/2004PositiveEstonia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
EstoniaHigh income: OECDWorkplace2005Gender Equality Act04/07/200405/01/2004PositiveEstonia prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
EstoniaHigh income: OECDPay2010Employment Contracts Act12/12/200807/01/2009PositiveEstonia allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men. It also eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining.
EstoniaHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2011Gender Equality Act09/24/200909/24/2009PositiveEstonia's new legal amendments made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
EstoniaHigh income: OECDPension2017State Pension Insurance Act12/05/200101/01/2017PositiveEstonia equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
EswatiniSub-Saharan AfricaPension1975Swaziland National Provident Fund Order 1974. No. 23.08/30/197402/01/1975PositiveEswatini introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
EswatiniSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1982Employment Act, 1980.09/26/198001/01/1981PositiveEswatini prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
EswatiniSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1982Employment Act, 1980.09/26/198009/26/1980PositiveEswatini prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
EswatiniSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2013Deeds Registry (Amendment) Act06/14/201207/02/2012PositiveEswatini granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
EswatiniSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2020Sexual Offences and Domestic Violence Act, 2018 06/28/201807/16/2018PositiveEswatini enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
EthiopiaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1994Labour Proclamation No. 42/199301/20/199301/20/1993PositiveEthiopia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
EthiopiaSub-Saharan AfricaPay1994Labour Proclamation No. 42/199301/20/199301/20/1993NegativeEthiopia prohibited women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
EthiopiaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1994Labour Proclamation No. 42/199301/20/199301/20/1993PositiveEthiopia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
EthiopiaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2002Revised Family Code Proclamation of 200007/04/200007/04/2000PositiveEthiopia's revised Family Code granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
EthiopiaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2002Revised Family Code Proclamation of 200007/04/200007/04/2000PositiveEthiopia allowed women to be head of household. Ethiopia no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
EthiopiaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2002Revised Family Code Proclamation of 200007/04/200007/04/2000PositiveEthiopia introduced the Revised Family Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
EthiopiaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2006Criminal Code of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia05/09/200505/09/2005PositiveEthiopia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
EthiopiaSub-Saharan AfricaPension2013Private Organization Employees Pension Proclamation No. 715/201106/24/201106/24/2011PositiveEthiopia introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
EthiopiaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2021Labour Proclamation No.1156/201909/05/201909/05/2019PositiveEthiopia increased paid maternity leave from 90 to 120 days and introduced 3 days of paid paternity leave.
FijiEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2000Human Rights Commission Act 199903/09/199903/09/1999PositiveFiji enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
FijiEast Asia & PacificAssets2005Family Law Act 200311/01/200511/01/2005PositiveFiji recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
FijiEast Asia & PacificParenthood2009Employment Relations Promulgation 200710/02/200710/02/2007PositiveFiji prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
FijiEast Asia & PacificPay2009Employment Relations Promulgation 200710/02/200710/02/2007PositiveFiji lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
FijiEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2009Employment Relations Promulgation 200710/02/200710/02/2007PositiveFiji prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
FijiEast Asia & PacificMarriage2011Domestic Violence Act 200908/14/200912/01/2009PositiveFiji enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
FijiEast Asia & PacificParenthood2020Employment Relations (Budget Amendment) Act 201807/13/201801/01/2019PositiveFiji introduced five days of paid paternity leave. It also increased the duration of paid maternity leave from 84 to 98 days.
FijiEast Asia & PacificMobility2021Travel Documents Regulations 201909/18/201909/18/2019PositiveFiji allowed women to apply for a passport in the same way as men.
FinlandHigh income: OECDParenthood1976Health Insurance Act 200407/01/197407/01/1974PositiveFinland increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
FinlandHigh income: OECDParenthood1979Law No. 72-1143 of December 22, 1972 on equal pay for men and women03/01/197803/01/1978PositiveFinland introduced paid paternity leave. It also introduced paid parental leave.
FinlandHigh income: OECDPay1987Act on Equality between Men and Women08/08/198601/01/1987PositiveFinland mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
FinlandHigh income: OECDWorkplace1988Act on Equality between Men and Women08/08/198606/01/1988PositiveFinland prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
FinlandHigh income: OECDPay1990Law 1351/1988 on Amending the Working Time Act12/29/198801/01/1989PositiveFinland lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
FinlandHigh income: OECDMarriage2000Act on Restraining Orders12/04/199801/01/1999PositiveFinland enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
FinlandHigh income: OECDPension2005Employee Pensions Act 200606/27/200301/01/2005PositiveFinland explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
FinlandHigh income: OECDWorkplace2006Act on Equality between Men and Women04/14/200506/01/2005PositiveFinland enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
FinlandHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2010Act on Equality between Men and Women12/19/200812/19/2008PositiveFinland' new legal amendments made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
FranceHigh income: OECDMarriage1972Civil Code06/04/197001/01/1971PositiveFrance allowed women to be head of household.
FranceHigh income: OECDPay1974Law No. 72-1143 of December 22, 1972 on equal pay for men and women12/22/197212/22/1972PositiveFrance mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
FranceHigh income: OECDMobility1977Civil Code07/11/197501/01/1976PositiveFrance reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
FranceHigh income: OECDWorkplace1984Law No. 82-689 of August 4, 1982 relating to the freedoms of workers in the company08/04/198208/04/1982PositiveFrance prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
FranceHigh income: OECDAssets1987Civil Code12/23/198507/01/1986PositiveFrance granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
FranceHigh income: OECDPension1987Social Security Code12/30/198612/31/1986PositiveFrance explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
FranceHigh income: OECDPay1989Labor Code06/19/198706/20/1987PositiveFrance lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
FranceHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship1994Penal Code07/22/199203/01/1994PositiveFrance's Penal Code made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
FranceHigh income: OECDWorkplace1994Penal Code; Labour Code07/07/199207/23/1992PositiveFrance enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
FranceHigh income: OECDPay2002Labor Code05/09/200105/09/2001PositiveFrance eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night.
FranceHigh income: OECDMarriage2005Civil Code05/26/200401/01/2005PositiveFrance gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
FranceHigh income: OECDMarriage2007Act No. 2010-769 of 9 July 2010 on violence specifically against women, violence within couples and its impact on children04/04/200604/05/2006PositiveFrance enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
FranceHigh income: OECDPay2008Labor Code03/12/200703/01/2008PositiveFrance allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
FranceHigh income: OECDParenthood2016Labor Code08/09/201608/10/2016PositiveFrance introduced paid parental leave.
GabonSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1985Collective Agreement of the Trade Sector in Gabon06/08/198306/08/1983PositiveGabon introduced paid paternity leave.
GabonSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1996Act No. 3/94 of 21 November 1994 on the Labor Code11/21/199401/01/1995PositiveGabon prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
GabonSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1996Act No. 3/94 of 21 November 1994 on the Labor Code11/21/199411/21/1994PositiveGabon prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
GabonSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2018Law No. 10/2016 of September 5, 2016 to Combat Sexual Harassment in the Workplace09/05/201609/05/2016PositiveGabon enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
GabonSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2022Law N° 004/2021 of September 15, 2021 modifying certain provisions of Law N° 15/72 of July 29, 1972 on the Civil Code09/15/202109/16/2021PositiveGabon granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
GabonSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2022Law N° 004/2021 of September 15, 2021 modifying certain provisions of Law N° 15/72 of July 29, 1972 on the Civil Code09/15/202109/16/2021PositiveGabon allowed women to open a bank account in the same way as men and made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
GabonSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2022Law N° 004/2021 of September 15, 2021 modifying certain provisions of Law N° 15/72 of July 29, 1972 on the Civil Code09/06/202109/16/2021PositiveGabon no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband and allows women to be head of household in the same way as men. Gabon also enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
GabonSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2022Law N° 004/2021 of September 15, 2021 modifying certain provisions of Law N° 15/72 of July 29, 1972 on the Civil Code09/15/202109/16/2021PositiveGabon allowed women to choose where to live in the same way as men.
GabonSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2022Law N° 004/2021 of September 15, 2021 modifying certain provisions of Law N° 15/72 of July 29, 1972 on the Civil Code09/15/202109/16/2021PositiveGabon allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
GabonSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2023Courier N°00762/MI/CAB-ME addressed to the Director General of Documentation and Immigration concerning the documents required for the issuance of a passport10/15/202110/15/2021PositiveGabon enacted legislation allowing women to apply for a passport in the same way as men.
GabonSub-Saharan AfricaPay2023Law n°022/2021 of November 19, 2021 on the Code of Work in the Gabonese Republic11/19/202111/23/2021PositiveGabon mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value. It also eliminated all restrictions on women’s employment. Women can now work in industrial jobs and in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
Gambia, TheSub-Saharan AfricaPension1979Social Security Corporation Act, 201001/01/197801/01/1978PositiveThe Gambia introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Gambia, TheSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1988Matrimonial Causes Act of 198609/08/198609/08/1986PositiveThe Gambia introduced the Matrimonial Causes Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
Gambia, TheSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2009Labor Act, 200710/17/200701/21/2008PositiveThe Gambia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Gambia, TheSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2012Women's Act, 201005/28/201005/28/2010PositiveThe Gambia's Woman's Act recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
Gambia, TheSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2012Women's Act, 201004/13/201005/28/2010PositiveThe Gambia increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
Gambia, TheSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2012Women's Act, 201005/28/201005/28/2010PositiveThe Gambia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Gambia, TheSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2015Domestic Violence Act, 201312/17/201312/30/2017PositiveThe Gambia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1972Law on the Fundamentals of Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Labor07/15/197001/01/1971PositiveGeorgia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaPension1972Labor Code of Georgia07/15/197001/01/1971NegativeGeorgia set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaPension1975Labor Code of Georgia07/30/197110/01/1973PositiveGeorgia no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1973Labor Code of Georgia07/30/197110/01/1973PositiveGeorgia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaPension1990Law on the Fundamentals of Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Labor02/04/198802/04/1988NegativeGeorgia set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaPension1994The Law of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia on the Approval of the Code of Labor Laws of the SSR of Georgia08/13/199208/13/1992PositiveGeorgia no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaPension2005Law on Compulsory Insurance Pensions07/15/200301/01/2004PositiveGeorgia no longer establishes an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2007Law of Georgia on Elimination of Domestic Violence, Protection and Support of Victims of Domestic Violence05/25/200606/09/2006PositiveGeorgia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2011Law on Gender Equality03/26/201004/12/2010PositiveGeorgia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaPay2007Labor Code of Georgia05/26/200606/10/2006PositiveGeorgia eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining. It also lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night and allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2020Law on Gender Equality02/19/201902/19/2019PositiveGeorgia made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in access to financial services.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2020Labor Code of Georgia05/03/2019#N/APositiveGeorgia enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2022Labor Code of Georgia09/29/202010/05/2020PositiveGeorgia introduced paid parental leave.
GermanyHigh income: OECDWorkplace1978First Marriage and Family Law Act of 197606/15/197607/01/1977PositiveGermany allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
GermanyHigh income: OECDParenthood1987Act on Parental Benefit and Parental Leave (Bundeselterngeld- und Elternzeitgesetz - BEEG)01/01/198601/01/1986PositiveGermany introduced paid parental leave.
GermanyHigh income: OECDPension1987Law on Restructuring of Survivor's Pensions and Recognition of Child-raising Periods in Statutory Pension Insurance of 198507/11/198507/19/1985PositiveGermany explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
GermanyHigh income: OECDWorkplace1996Act to establish equality for men and women of 199406/24/199406/24/1994PositiveGermany prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
GermanyHigh income: OECDMarriage1999German Civil Code05/04/199805/04/1998PositiveGermany gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
GermanyHigh income: OECDMarriage2003Law on civil Law protection against acts of violence and stalking (Gewaltschutzgesetz - GewSchG)12/11/200106/24/1905PositiveGermany enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
GermanyHigh income: OECDParenthood2007Expense Compensation Act12/22/200501/01/2006PositiveGermany began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
GermanyHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2008Act Implementing European Directives Putting Into Effect the Principle of Equal Treatment08/14/200608/14/2006PositiveGermany introduced a new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
GermanyHigh income: OECDParenthood2008Act on Parental Benefit and Parental Leave (Bundeselterngeld- und Elternzeitgesetz - BEEG)12/05/200601/01/2007PositiveGermany introduced paid paternity leave.
GermanyHigh income: OECDWorkplace2008Act Implementing European Directives Putting Into Effect the Principle of Equal Treatment08/14/200608/18/2006PositiveGermany enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
GermanyHigh income: OECDPay2010New Training Regulations for the occupation Mining Technician (Bergbautechnologe/ Bergbautechnologin)03/31/200908/01/2009PositiveGermany eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining.
GermanyHigh income: OECDPay2019Act on the Promotion of Transparency of Pay between Women and Men06/30/201707/05/2017PositiveGermany introduced new legislation that mandates equal remuneration for work of equal value.
GhanaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1973Matrimonial Causes Act09/07/197106/14/1985PositiveGhana introduced the Matrimonial Causes Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
GhanaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1987Intestate Succession Law06/14/198506/14/1985PositiveGhana's Intestate Succession Act made inheritance equal under law for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
GhanaSub-Saharan AfricaPension1992Social Security Act01/01/199102/15/1991PositiveGhana equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
GhanaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2005Labor Act, 200310/08/200310/10/2003PositiveGhana prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
GhanaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2005Labor Act, 200310/08/200310/10/2003PositiveGhana lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
GhanaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2005Labor Act, 200310/08/200303/31/2004PositiveGhana prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
GhanaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2008Domestic Violence Act, 200705/03/200702/21/2007PositiveGhana enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
GreeceHigh income: OECDAssets1984Civil Code02/18/198302/18/1983PositiveGreece eliminated the husband's supremacy in conjugal and family relations, granting spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage. Greece also recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
GreeceHigh income: OECDMarriage1984Civil Code02/18/198302/18/1983PositiveGreece allowed women to be head of household. Greece abolished a 10-month waiting period for women before remarriage, giving them the same rights to remarry as men.
GreeceHigh income: OECDMobility1984Civil Code02/18/198302/18/1983PositiveGreece allowed women to choose where to live in the same way as men.
GreeceHigh income: OECDParenthood1984Law 1483/1984 Protection and facilitation of workers with family obligations10/08/198410/08/1984PositiveGreece prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
GreeceHigh income: OECDParenthood1985Law 14/2/198402/14/198402/14/1984PositiveGreece increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
GreeceHigh income: OECDWorkplace1985Law No. 1414/1984 - Application of the principle of gender equality in labor relations and other provisions01/30/198401/30/1984PositiveGreece prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
GreeceHigh income: OECDPension1986Law 1483/1984 Protection and facilitation of workers with family obligations10/08/198410/08/1984PositiveGreece explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
GreeceHigh income: OECDParenthood1994National General Collective Labor Agreement 199306/09/199306/09/1993PositiveGreece introduced paid paternity leave.
GreeceHigh income: OECDMarriage2008Law 3500/2006 on Domestic Violence 10/23/200610/24/2006PositiveGreece enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
GreeceHigh income: OECDPay2008Law 3488/2006 on Application of the Principle of Equal Treatment between Men and Women regards Access to Employment, Vocational Training and Promotion, Terms and Conditions and Other Relevant Provisions12/31/200712/31/2007PositiveGreece eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night.
GreeceHigh income: OECDWorkplace2008Law 3488/2006 on Application of the Principle of Equal Treatment between Men and Women regards Access to Employment, Vocational Training and Promotion, Terms and Conditions and Other Relevant Provisions09/06/200609/11/2006PositiveGreece enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
GreeceHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2011Law 3769/2009 Application of the Principle of Equal Treatment between Men and Women in the Access to and Supply of Goods and Services and Other Provisions07/01/200907/01/2009PositiveGreece introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
GreeceHigh income: OECDPay2012Law 3896/2010 on Implementation of the Principle of Equal Opportunities and Equal Treatment for Men and Women in Matters of Employment and Occupation08/12/201008/12/2010PositiveGreece mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
GreeceHigh income: OECDPension2012Law 3896/2010 on Implementation of the Principle of Equal Opportunities and Equal Treatment for Men and Women in Matters of Employment and Occupation08/12/201008/12/2010PositiveGreece equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
GreeceHigh income: OECDParenthood2022Law No. 4808/202106/16/202106/19/2021PositiveGreece introduced 2 months of paid parental leave as an individual entitlement for each parent.
GrenadaLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1974Matrimonial Causes Act07/23/197301/01/1974PositiveGrenada recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
GrenadaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1974Matrimonial Causes Act05/23/197301/01/1974PositiveGrenada allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
GrenadaLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1975Domicile and Matrimonial Proceedings Act 197307/23/197301/01/1974PositiveGrenada introduced new legislation allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
GrenadaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1982Act No. 14 of 199910/10/198010/10/1980PositiveGrenada prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
GrenadaLatin America & CaribbeanPension1984National Insurance Act12/31/198312/31/1983PositiveGrenada introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
GrenadaLatin America & CaribbeanPay2001Act No. 14 of 199907/02/199907/02/1999PositiveGrenada mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value. It also eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night.
GrenadaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2001Act No. 14 of 199907/02/199907/02/1999PositiveGrenada prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
GrenadaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2003Domestic Violence Act06/12/200106/12/2001PositiveGrenada enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
GrenadaLatin America & CaribbeanMobility2020Passport Regulations 201806/27/201806/27/2018PositiveGrenada made international travel easier for women by allowing them to apply for a passport in the same way as men, with no need for additional documentation
GuatemalaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1995Decree No. 1441 Labor Code11/17/199212/03/1992PositiveGuatemala introduced paid paternity leave.
GuatemalaLatin America & CaribbeanPay1994Decree No. 64-9211/17/199212/03/1992PositiveGuatemala lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
GuatemalaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1994Decree No. 1441 Labor Code11/17/199212/03/1992PositiveGuatemala began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
GuatemalaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1998Decree No. 97-1996 Law to prevent, sanction and erradicate intrafamily violence11/25/199611/29/1996PositiveGuatemala enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
GuatemalaLatin America & CaribbeanAssets2000Decree-Law No. 106 Civil Code11/19/199801/01/1999PositiveGuatemala granted spouses equal administrative authority over assets during marriage and equal rights to immovable property.
GuatemalaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2001Decree No. 27-99 amended Civil Code08/30/1999#N/APositiveGuatemala allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
GuatemalaLatin America & CaribbeanPension2004Regulation on Protection Related to Disability, Old Age and Survival03/13/200303/19/2003PositiveGuatemala explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
GuatemalaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2009Decree-Law No. 106 Civil Code11/29/200711/29/2007PositiveGuatemala revoked a provision requiring a waiting period for women before remarriage.
GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1989 Order n° 003/PRG/SGG/88 of January 28, 1988 establishing the labor code of the Republic of Guinea 01/28/198801/28/1988PositiveGuinea increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaPay1989 Order n° 003/PRG/SGG/88 of January 28, 1988 establishing the labor code of the Republic of Guinea 01/28/198801/28/1988PositiveGuinea mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2015Law No. L/2014/072/CNT of 10 January 2014 on the Labor Code01/10/201401/10/2014PositiveGuinea lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2015Law No. L/2014/072/CNT of 10 January 2014 on the Labor Code01/14/201401/14/2014PositiveGuinea prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2018Law No. 2016/059/AN on the Penal Code10/26/201610/26/2016PositiveGuinea's new Penal Code made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2020Ordinary Law L/2019/035/AN of July 04, 2019, on the Civil Code of the Republic of Guinea 07/26/201907/26/2019PositiveGuinea allowed women to be head of household and obtain a divorce in the same way as a man.
GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2020Ordinary Law L/2019/035/AN of July 04, 2019, on the Civil Code of the Republic of Guinea 07/26/201907/26/2019PositiveGuinea allowed women to choose where to live in the same way as men.
GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2020Ordinary Law L/2019/035/AN of July 04, 2019, on the Civil Code of the Republic of Guinea 07/04/201907/26/2019PositiveGuinea allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
Guinea-BissauSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1987Law No. 2/1986 General Labor Law05/01/198605/01/1986PositiveGuinea-Bissau's social security system began administering maternity benefits.
Guinea-BissauSub-Saharan AfricaPension1987Decree-Law No. 5 of 198603/29/198703/29/1987PositiveGuinea-Bissau introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Guinea-BissauSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1987Law No. 2/1986 General Labor Law04/05/198605/01/1986PositiveGuinea-Bissau prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Guinea-BissauSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2015Law No. 6/2014 on the Criminalization of Acts of Violence in the Context of Domestic and Family Relations02/04/2014#N/APositiveGuinea-Bissau enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
GuyanaLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1990Domicile Reform Act07/14/198807/14/1988PositiveGuyana introduced the Domicile Reform Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
GuyanaLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1992Married Persons (Property) Act of 190407/20/199007/20/1990PositiveGuyana recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
GuyanaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1998Domestic Violence Act12/31/199612/31/1996PositiveGuyana enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
GuyanaLatin America & CaribbeanPay1998Prevention of Discrimination Act10/13/199710/13/1997PositiveGuyana mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
GuyanaLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship1999Prevention of Discrimination Act10/13/199710/13/1997PositiveGuyana introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
GuyanaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1999Termination of Employment and Severance Pay Act08/07/199708/07/1997PositiveGuyana prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
GuyanaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1999Prevention of Discrimination Act10/13/199710/13/1997PositiveGuyana prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties and civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
HaitiLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship1984Decree of 8 October 1982 establishing a new status for married women10/08/198210/08/1982PositiveHaiti introduced new legislation allowing a woman to sing a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
HaitiLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1984Decree of 8 October 1982 establishing a new status for married women10/08/198210/08/1982PositiveHaiti no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
HaitiLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1984Decree of 8 October 1982 establishing a new status for married women10/08/198210/08/1982PositiveHaiti allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
HaitiLatin America & CaribbeanPay1985Decree of 24 February 1984 updating the Labor Code of 12 September 196102/24/198402/24/1984PositiveHaiti mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
HaitiLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1985Decree of 24 February 1984 updating the Labor Code of 12 September 196102/24/198402/24/1984PositiveHaiti prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
HaitiLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2018Decree of 24 February 1984 updating the Labor Code of 12 September 196112/31/201612/31/2016PositiveHaiti's government began administering maternity benefits.
HondurasLatin America & CaribbeanPension1973Regulation of Social Security Law12/17/197112/17/1971PositiveHonduras introduced an old-age pension system that does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
HondurasLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1998Decree 144-83, Penal Code10/31/199602/28/1997PositiveHonduras enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
HondurasLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1998Decree 144-83, Penal Code05/08/199706/10/1997PositiveHonduras enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
HondurasLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2001Law on Equality of Opportunities for Women04/28/200005/22/2000PositiveHonduras prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
HondurasLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship2009Consumer Protection Law04/01/200807/07/2008PositiveHonduras's Consumer Law made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
HondurasLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2014Family Code02/27/201309/06/2013PositiveHonduras allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as a man. It also allowed women to be head of household.
HondurasLatin America & CaribbeanMobility2014Civil Code02/27/201309/06/2013PositiveHonduras reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
Hong Kong SAR, ChinaEast Asia & PacificPension1974Mandatory Provident Fund Schemes Ordinance01/01/197301/01/1973PositiveHong Kong SAR, China introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Hong Kong SAR, ChinaEast Asia & PacificMarriage1988Domestic and Cohabitation Relationships Violence Ordinance12/19/1986#N/APositiveHong Kong SAR, China enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Hong Kong SAR, ChinaEast Asia & PacificEntrepreneurship1997Sex Discrimination Ordinance05/20/199612/20/1996PositiveHong Kong SAR, China introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Hong Kong SAR, ChinaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace1997Sex Discrimination Ordinance05/20/199605/20/1996PositiveHong Kong SAR, China enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Hong Kong SAR, ChinaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace1998Sex Discrimination Ordinance01/01/199501/01/1996PositiveHong Kong SAR, China prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Hong Kong SAR, ChinaEast Asia & PacificParenthood2016Employment Ordinance (Cap. 57)12/23/201402/27/2015PositiveHong Kong SAR, China introduced paid paternity leave.
Hong Kong SAR, ChinaEast Asia & PacificParenthood2022Employment Ordinance (Cap. 57)07/17/202012/11/2020PositiveHong Kong SAR, China increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
HungaryHigh income: OECDPension1991Labour Code of 199201/16/199101/16/1991PositiveHungary explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
HungaryHigh income: OECDParenthood1993Labour Code of 199203/30/199203/30/1992PositiveHungary introduced paid paternity leave.
HungaryHigh income: OECDPension1993Labour Code of 199203/30/199205/04/1992NegativeHungary set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
HungaryHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2005Act CXXV of 2003 on Equal Treatment and Promotion of Equal Opportunity12/22/200312/22/2003PositiveHungary introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
HungaryHigh income: OECDWorkplace2005Act CXXV of 2003 on Equal Treatment and Promotion of Equal Opportunity12/28/200301/27/2004PositiveHungary prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
HungaryHigh income: OECDWorkplace2008Act CXXV of 2003 on Equal Treatment and Promotion of Equal Opportunity11/27/200612/01/2006PositiveHungary enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
HungaryHigh income: OECDPension2010Law on Social Security Pensions12/13/201012/13/2010PositiveHungary equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
HungaryHigh income: OECDMarriage2011Act LXXII of 2009 on Restraining Orders Related to Violence Between Relatives10/01/200910/01/2009PositiveHungary enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
HungaryHigh income: OECDPay2013Act on Labor Code (2012 I)12/13/201112/13/2011PositiveHungary allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
IcelandHigh income: OECDWorkplace1976Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men12/31/197612/31/1976PositiveIceland prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
IcelandHigh income: OECDParenthood1977Act on Working Terms and Pension Rights Insurance, No. 55/198012/31/197512/31/1975PositiveIceland's government began administering maternity benefits.
IcelandHigh income: OECDPay1977Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men12/31/197612/31/1976PositiveIceland mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
IcelandHigh income: OECDPension1986Act on Working Terms and Pension Rights Insurance, No. 55/198012/18/198512/18/1985PositiveIceland explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
IcelandHigh income: OECDParenthood1988Act on maternity and parental leave03/31/198703/31/1987PositiveIceland prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
IcelandHigh income: OECDParenthood1989Act on maternity and parental leave01/01/198801/01/1988PositiveIceland introduced paid parental leave.
IcelandHigh income: OECDParenthood1999Paternity Leave and Benefit Act12/09/199701/01/1998PositiveIceland introduced paid paternity leave.
IcelandHigh income: OECDWorkplace2001Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men05/01/200006/06/2000PositiveIceland enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties and civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
IcelandHigh income: OECDMarriage2013Act on Restraining Orders06/23/201106/30/2011PositiveIceland enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
IcelandHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2017Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights Irrespective of Gender, No. 150/202007/10/201507/10/2015PositiveIceland's new legal amendments made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
IndiaSouth AsiaWorkplace1989Equal Remuneration Act, 197612/16/198712/16/1987PositiveIndia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
IndiaSouth AsiaAssets1996The Hindu Succession Act06/22/199406/26/1994PositiveIndia reformed the Hindu Succession Act, equalizing inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
IndiaSouth AsiaMarriage2007The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act09/13/200510/26/2006PositiveIndia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
IndiaSouth AsiaWorkplace1999The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act08/13/199708/13/1997PositiveIndia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties and civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
IndiaSouth AsiaParenthood2018The Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act03/27/201704/01/2017PositiveIndia increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
IndiaSouth AsiaPay2019Maharashtra Shops and Establishments (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act09/07/201709/07/2017PositiveThe state of Maharashtra eliminated restrictions on women’s ability to work in jobs deemed dangerous.
IndiaSouth AsiaParenthood2021Employees State Insurance Act (Amendment)09/10/202010/01/2020PositiveThe state of Maharashtra began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
IndonesiaEast Asia & PacificAssets1975Law No. 1/1974 on Marriage01/02/197401/02/1974PositiveIndonesia granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
IndonesiaEast Asia & PacificEntrepreneurship1975Law No. 1/1974 on Marriage01/02/197401/02/1974PositiveIndonesia introduced a new Marriage Law allowing a woman to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
IndonesiaEast Asia & PacificMobility1975Law No. 1/1974 on Marriage01/02/197401/02/1974PositiveIndonesia introduced the Marriage Law allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
IndonesiaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace1975Law No. 1/1974 on Marriage01/02/197401/02/1974PositiveIndonesia allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
IndonesiaEast Asia & PacificPension1978Government Regulation on Retirement Guarantee Program (No. 45/2015)11/26/197711/26/1977PositiveIndonesia introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
IndonesiaEast Asia & PacificParenthood1999Indonesian Labor Law (No.13/2003)10/03/199710/03/1997PositiveIndonesia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
IndonesiaEast Asia & PacificPay2004Indonesian Labor Law (No.13/2003)03/25/200303/25/2003PositiveIndonesia allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men and lifted restrictions on women's employment in industrial jobs.
IndonesiaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2004Indonesian Labor Law (No.13/2003)06/25/200306/25/2003PositiveIndonesia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
IndonesiaEast Asia & PacificParenthood2005Indonesian Labor Law (No.13/2003)03/25/200303/25/2003PositiveIndonesia introduced paid paternity leave.
IndonesiaEast Asia & PacificMarriage2006Law No. 23/2004 Regarding Elimination of Violence in Household09/22/200409/22/2004PositiveIndonesia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
IndonesiaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2023Law on the Crime of Sexual Violence05/09/202205/09/2022PositiveIndonesia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment, including both criminal penalties and civil remedies for such conduct.
Iran, Islamic Rep.Middle East & North AfricaPension1992Labor Law11/20/199011/20/1990NegativeThe Islamic Republic of Iran set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
Iran, Islamic Rep.Middle East & North AfricaParenthood2009Population and Family Regulation Amendments Act 201312/31/200612/31/2006PositiveThe Islamic Republic of Iran increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
Iran, Islamic Rep.Middle East & North AfricaParenthood2015Population and Family Regulation Amendments Act 201306/10/201306/10/2013PositiveThe Islamic Republic of Iran introduced paid paternity leave.
IraqMiddle East & North AfricaPay1989Labor Law08/17/198708/17/1987PositiveIraq eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining and removed restrictions on women's employment in manufacturing.
IraqMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace1989Act No. 71 of 1987 promulgating the Labour Code05/27/198705/27/1987PositiveIraq prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
IraqMiddle East & North AfricaMobility2017Passport Law No. 32 of 201509/21/201509/21/2015PositiveIraq enacted a new passport law which no longer requires a married woman to bring a guardian when applying for a passport.
IraqMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2017Labor Law10/15/201510/15/2015PositiveIraq increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
IraqMiddle East & North AfricaPay2017Labor Law No. 37 of 201510/15/201510/15/2015PositiveIraq mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
IraqMiddle East & North AfricaPension2017Labor Law No. 37 of 201510/15/201510/15/2015NegativeIraq set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
IraqMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2017Labor Law No. 37 of 201510/15/201510/15/2015PositiveIraq enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
IraqMiddle East & North AfricaEntrepreneurship 2023Central Bank Circular No. 23/42203/10/202203/10/2022PositiveIraq prohibited gender-based discrimination in financial services.
IrelandHigh income: OECDPay1976Anti-Discrimination (Pay) Act, 197407/01/197407/01/1974PositiveIreland mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
IrelandHigh income: OECDParenthood1978Unfair Dismissals Act of 197704/06/197704/06/1977PositiveIreland prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
IrelandHigh income: OECDWorkplace1979Employment Equality Act06/01/197706/01/1977PositiveIreland prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
IrelandHigh income: OECDParenthood1982Maternity Protection of Employees Act, 198104/06/198104/06/1981PositiveIreland introduced paid maternity leave of at least 14 weeks.
IrelandHigh income: OECDPay1982Social Welfare Consolidation Act09/17/198209/17/1982PositiveIreland removed restrictions on women's employment in manufacturing.
IrelandHigh income: OECDMarriage1983Domestic Violence Act06/23/198107/23/1981PositiveIreland enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
IrelandHigh income: OECDMobility1988Domicile and Recognition of Foreign Divorces Act07/02/198610/02/1986PositiveIreland introduced the Domicile and Recognition of Foreign Divorces Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
IrelandHigh income: OECDPension1995Social Welfare Consolidation Act03/31/199403/31/1994PositiveIreland explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
IrelandHigh income: OECDMarriage1997Family Law Act10/02/199508/01/1996PositiveIreland revoked a constitutional ban on divorce, making the process equal for both spouses. Women and men also have the same rights to remarry.
IrelandHigh income: OECDAssets1998Family Law (Divorce) Act11/27/199602/27/1997PositiveIreland passed the Family Law (Divorce) Act, explicitly recognizing the value of nonmonetary contributions.
IrelandHigh income: OECDWorkplace2000Employment Equality Act06/18/199810/19/1999PositiveIreland enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties and civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
IrelandHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2001Equal Status Act04/26/200010/25/2000PositiveIreland's Equal Status Act made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
IrelandHigh income: OECDParenthood2018Paternity Leave and Benefit Act07/27/201607/27/2016PositiveIreland introduced paid paternity leave.
IrelandHigh income: OECDParenthood2021Parent's Leave and Benefit Act 201910/24/201911/02/2019PositiveIreland introduced two weeks of paid parental leave as an individual entitlement for each parent.
IsraelHigh income: OECDAssets1975Spouses Property Relations Law, 197301/01/197401/01/1974PositiveIsrael recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
IsraelHigh income: OECDWorkplace1989Employment (Equal Opportunities) Law 5748-198803/03/198804/01/1988PositiveIsrael prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
IsraelHigh income: OECDMarriage1992Prevention of Family Violence Law 5751-199103/28/199106/26/1991PositiveIsrael enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
IsraelHigh income: OECDPay1997Equal Pay for Female and Male Workers Law, 199603/21/199609/21/1996PositiveIsrael mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
IsraelHigh income: OECDWorkplace1999Prevention of Sexual Harassment Law 5758-199803/01/199809/01/1998PositiveIsrael enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties and civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
IsraelHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2001Prohibition of Discrimination in Products, Services and Entry into Places of Entertainment and Public Places Law, 5761-200005/15/200005/15/2000PositiveIsrael made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
IsraelHigh income: OECDPension2005Retirement Age Law, 200401/18/200401/18/2004NegativeIsrael set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
IsraelHigh income: OECDParenthood2007Women's Employment Act02/23/200506/06/2005PositiveIsrael increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
IsraelHigh income: OECDPension2015Retirement Age Law, 200412/29/201112/29/2011PositiveIsrael equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
ItalyHigh income: OECDMarriage1972Law No. 898 of 197012/01/197012/03/1970PositiveItaly adopted its first law on divorce, allowing women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
ItalyHigh income: OECDParenthood1973Legislative Decree no. 151 of 26 March 200101/18/197201/18/1972PositiveItaly increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
ItalyHigh income: OECDAssets1976Law No. 151 of 197505/19/197505/23/1975PositiveItaly recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
ItalyHigh income: OECDMarriage1976Law No. 151 of 197505/19/197505/23/1975PositiveItaly allowed women to be head of household.
ItalyHigh income: OECDMobility1976Law No. 151 of 197505/19/197505/23/1975PositiveItaly reformed its Family Law removing restriction for a married woman to choose where to live and leave the marital home without her husband's permission.
ItalyHigh income: OECDPay1979Law No. 903 of 197712/09/197712/09/1977PositiveItaly mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
ItalyHigh income: OECDWorkplace1979Legislative Decree no. 198 of 11 April 2006 "Code of equal opportunities for men and women, pursuant to article 6 of Law no. 246 of 28 November 2005"12/09/197712/09/1977PositiveItaly prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ItalyHigh income: OECDPension1997Law No 335 of 8 August 1995 - Reform of the compulsory and supplementary pension system08/08/199508/08/1995PositiveItaly explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
ItalyHigh income: OECDParenthood2001Legislative Decree 26-3-2001 no. 151 Consolidated text of the legislative provisions on the protection and support of maternity and paternity, pursuant to Article 15 of Law no. 53 of 8 March 2000. 03/26/200103/26/2001PositiveItaly introduced paid parental leave.
ItalyHigh income: OECDPay2002Legislative Decree no. 198 of 11 April 2006 "Code of equal opportunities for men and women, pursuant to article 6 of Law no. 246 of 28 November 2005"03/26/200104/26/2001PositiveItaly eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night.
ItalyHigh income: OECDWorkplace2006Legislative Decree no. 145 of 30 May 200505/20/200508/11/2005PositiveItaly enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
ItalyHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2007Legislative Decree no. 198 of 11 April 2006 "Code of equal opportunities for men and women, pursuant to article 6 of Law no. 246 of 28 November 2005"04/11/200606/15/2007PositiveItaly introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
ItalyHigh income: OECDWorkplace2007Legislative Decree no. 198 of 11 April 2006 "Code of equal opportunities for men and women, pursuant to article 6 of Law no. 246 of 28 November 2005"04/11/200606/15/2006PositiveItaly enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
ItalyHigh income: OECDParenthood2014Law No. 92 of 28 June 2012 06/28/201206/28/2012PositiveItaly introduced paid paternity leave.
ItalyHigh income: OECDMarriage2015Law No. 119 of 15 October 201310/15/201310/16/2013PositiveItaly enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
ItalyHigh income: OECDPension2019Directorial Decree of 5 November 201901/01/201801/01/2018PositiveItaly equalized the age (67 years) at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
JamaicaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1981Maternity Leave Act12/31/197912/31/1979PositiveJamaica prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
JamaicaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1990The Matrimonial Causes Act02/01/198902/01/1989PositiveJamaica allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as a man.
JamaicaLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1990The Matrimonial Causes Act02/01/198902/01/1989PositiveJamaica allowed women to choose where to live in the same way as men.
JamaicaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1997Domestic Violence Act02/27/199605/06/1996PositiveJamaica enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
JamaicaLatin America & CaribbeanAssets2007Property (Rights of Spouses) Act04/01/200604/01/2006PositiveJamaica recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions as a factor in property division.
JamaicaLatin America & CaribbeanPay2016The Employment (Flexible Work Arrangements) (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 201411/25/201411/25/2014PositiveJamaica lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
JamaicaLatin America & CaribbeanPension2016The Employment (Flexible Work Arrangements) (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 201403/25/201101/01/2015PositiveJamaica equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
JamaicaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2023Sexual Harassment (Protection and Prevention) Act04/02/202204/02/2022PositiveJamaica enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment, including civil remedies for such conduct.
JapanHigh income: OECDWorkplace1974Act No. 113 of July, 1972 - Act on Securing, Etc. of Equal Opportunity and Treatment between Men and Women in Employment07/01/197207/01/1972PositiveJapan prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
JapanHigh income: OECDParenthood1986Child Care and Family Care Leave Act06/01/198504/01/1986PositiveJapan increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
JapanHigh income: OECDPension1992Law Concerning the Welfare of Workers Who Take Care of Children or Other Family Members Including Child Care and Family Care Leave07/06/199007/06/1990PositiveJapan explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
JapanHigh income: OECDParenthood2011Child Care and Family Care Leave Act07/01/200906/30/2010PositiveJapan introduced paid paternity leave.
JapanHigh income: OECDMarriage2002Act on the Prevention of Spousal Violence and the Protection of Victims04/13/200110/13/2001PositiveJapan enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
JapanHigh income: OECDParenthood1996Child Care and Family Care Leave Act06/09/199510/01/1995PositiveJapan introduced paid parental leave.
JordanMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood1980Law No. 8 of 1996 (Labor Law of 1996) and its amendments07/30/197807/30/1978PositiveJordan began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
JordanMiddle East & North AfricaPension1981Law No. 8 of 1996 (Labor Law of 1996) and its amendments07/30/197807/30/1978PositiveJordan introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
JordanMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2009Law on Protection from Domestic Violence No. 15 of 201703/16/200803/16/2008PositiveJordan enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
JordanMiddle East & North AfricaPension2011The Social Security Law for the Year 201004/01/201004/01/2010PositiveJordan explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
JordanMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2020Law No. 8 of 1996 (Labor Law of 1996) and its amendments05/16/201905/16/2019PositiveJordan introduced three days of paid paternity leave.
JordanMiddle East & North AfricaPay2020Law No. 8 of 1996 (Labor Law of 1996) and its amendments05/16/201905/16/2019PositiveJordan enacted legislation that mandates equal remuneration for work of equal value.
JordanMiddle East & North AfricaPay2020Decree No. 2 of 201812/30/201812/30/2018PositiveJordan lifted restrictions on women’s ability to work at night.
JordanMiddle East & North AfricaEntrepreneurship2021The Central Bank of Jordan Instructions No. 56/201208/12/202008/12/2020PositiveJordan made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
JordanMiddle East & North AfricaMobility2021Passport application form08/26/202008/26/2020PositiveJordan allowed women to apply for a passport in the same way as men.
KazakhstanEurope & Central AsiaPension1972Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan07/01/197001/01/1971NegativeKazakhstan set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
KazakhstanEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1973Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan07/21/197207/21/1972PositiveKazakhstan increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
KazakhstanEurope & Central AsiaPension1974Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan07/21/197201/01/1973PositiveKazakhstan no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
KazakhstanEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2001Labour Code of the Kazakh SSR of 21 July 197212/10/199901/01/2000PositiveKazakhstan prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
KazakhstanEurope & Central AsiaPension1993Law on Pensions of the Republic of Kazakhstan06/17/199110/01/1991PositiveKazakhstan explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
KazakhstanEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2001Labour Law 199912/10/199912/10/1999PositiveKazakhstan prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
KazakhstanEurope & Central AsiaPay2001Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan12/10/199912/10/1999PositiveKazakhstan lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
KazakhstanEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2009Law on Compulsory Social Insurance04/25/200301/01/2008PositiveKazakhstan introduced paid parental leave.
KazakhstanEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2011Law on Prevention of Domestic Violence12/04/200912/14/2009PositiveKazakhstan enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
KazakhstanEurope & Central AsiaPension2017Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan11/23/201501/01/2016NegativeKazakhstan set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
KazakhstanEurope & Central AsiaPay2023Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated October 12, 2021 No. 67-VII ZRK10/12/202110/22/2021PositiveKazakhstan eliminated all restrictions on women’s employment. Women can now work in industrial jobs and in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
KenyaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1972Law of Domicile Act of 197206/04/197106/05/1971PositiveKenya introduced the Domicile Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
KenyaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1974Law of Succession Act11/13/197207/01/1981PositiveKenya equalized inheritance rights for sons and daughters.
KenyaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2008Sexual Offences Act07/14/200607/21/2006PositiveKenya enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
KenyaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2009Employment Act10/26/200710/26/2007PositiveKenya prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
KenyaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2009Employment Act10/26/200710/26/2007PositiveKenya mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value. It also eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining and in industrial undertakings at night.
KenyaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2009Employment (Amendment) Act, 202110/22/200710/22/2007PositiveKenya prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
KenyaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2015The Matrimonial Property Act, 201312/24/201301/16/2014PositiveKenya recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
KenyaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2017Protection Against Domestic Violence Act05/14/201506/04/2015PositiveKenya enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
KiribatiEast Asia & PacificPension1979Provident Fund (Amendment) Act 2005 (No. 11 of 2005)07/01/197707/01/1977PositiveKiribati introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
KiribatiEast Asia & PacificPay2009Employment and Industrial Relations Code 201506/17/200906/17/2009PositiveKiribati mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
KiribatiEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2009Employment (Amendment) Act 2008 (No.2 of 2008)05/15/200805/15/2008PositiveKiribati prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
KiribatiEast Asia & PacificMarriage2016Te Rau N Te Mwenga (Family Peace) Act 201412/10/2014#N/APositiveKiribati enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
KiribatiEast Asia & PacificParenthood2017Employment and Industrial Relations Code 201512/24/201512/24/2015PositiveKiribati prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
KiribatiEast Asia & PacificPay2017Employment and Industrial Relations Code 201512/24/201512/24/2015PositiveKiribati eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining and in industrial undertakings at night. It also lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
KiribatiEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2017Employment and Industrial Relations Code 201508/20/201512/24/2015PositiveKiribati enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties and civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Korea, Rep.High income: OECDPension1975National Pension Act of 31 December 198612/24/197301/01/1974PositiveThe Republic of Korea introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Korea, Rep.High income: OECDParenthood1989Act on Equal Employment and Support for Work-Family Reconciliation04/01/198904/01/1989PositiveThe Republic of Korea prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Korea, Rep.High income: OECDAssets1991Civil Act of 195801/13/199001/13/1990PositiveThe Republic of Korea's new Family Law equalized inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses. It also recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
Korea, Rep.High income: OECDMobility1991Civil Act of 195801/13/199001/13/1990PositiveThe Republic of Korea reformed its Civil Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
Korea, Rep.High income: OECDWorkplace1998Labor Standards Act03/13/199703/13/1997PositiveThe Republic of Korea prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Korea, Rep.High income: OECDMarriage1999Act on special cases concerning the punishment, etc. of crimes of domestic violence12/13/199706/20/1905PositiveThe Republic of Korea enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Korea, Rep.High income: OECDWorkplace2000Sexual Equality Employment Act02/08/199902/08/1999PositiveThe Republic of Korea enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
Korea, Rep.High income: OECDParenthood2003Act on Equal Employment and Support for Work-Family Reconciliation09/15/200309/15/2003PositiveThe Republic of Korea increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also introduced paid parental leave.
Korea, Rep.High income: OECDMarriage2006Civil Act of 195803/31/200501/01/2008PositiveThe Republic of Korea allowed women to be head of household. Korea, Rep. gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
Korea, Rep.High income: OECDWorkplace2007The National Human Rights Commission Act07/29/200507/29/2005PositiveThe Republic of Korea enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Korea, Rep.High income: OECDParenthood2009Act on Equal Employment and Support for Work-Family Reconciliation10/09/200910/09/2009PositiveThe Republic of Korea introduced paid paternity leave.
Korea, Rep.High income: OECDPension2009National Pension Act of 31 December 198602/29/200803/19/2010PositiveThe Republic of Korea explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
KosovoEurope & Central AsiaPension1998Labor Law06/19/199606/19/1996PositiveKosovo equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
KosovoEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2003United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Regulation No. 2001/27 on Essential Labor Law in Kosovo10/08/200110/08/2001NegativeKosovo decreased the duration of paid maternity leave to less than 14 weeks. It also enacted legislation that obliges employers to share in the administration of maternity benefits.
KosovoEurope & Central AsiaPension2003Law on Pension Funds (Amendment) No. 04/L-168 of 08 April 201312/22/200112/22/2001PositiveKosovo equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It no longer establishes an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It no longer explicitly accounts for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
KosovoEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2003Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan10/08/200110/08/2001PositiveKosovo prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
KosovoEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2004United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Regulation No. 2003/12 on Protection against Domestic Violence05/07/200305/07/2003PositiveKosovo enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
KosovoEurope & Central AsiaPay2005Labor Law02/19/200406/07/2004PositiveKosovo mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
KosovoEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2006Law on Inheritance02/19/200406/02/2004PositiveKosovo introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
KosovoEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2012Labor Law11/01/201011/18/2010PositiveKosovo increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
KuwaitMiddle East & North AfricaPension1978Social Security Law, No. 61 of 1976.09/02/197609/02/1976PositiveKuwait introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
KuwaitMiddle East & North AfricaMobility2011The Constitutional Court's Ruling that holds some provisions of the Passports Law unconstitutional 10/20/200910/20/2009PositiveKuwait amended its passport law which no longer requires women the consent of her husband when applying for a passport.
KuwaitMiddle East & North AfricaPension2020Social Insurance Law04/01/201904/01/2019NegativeKuwait set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
KuwaitMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2021Kuwait Domestic Violence Law 202009/13/202009/20/2020PositiveKuwait enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
KuwaitMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2022Ministerial Decree No. 177 of 2021 on Prohibiting Discrimination in Employment and Prohibiting Sexual Harassment at Workplaces09/28/202109/28/2021PositiveKuwait prohibited gender discrimination in employment and adopted legislation on sexual harassment in employment.
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central AsiaPension1972Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Decree Dated March 26, 1956 on Increasing the Duration of Holidays for Pregnancy and Childhood07/15/197001/01/1971NegativeKyrgyz Republic set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1973Labor Code of Kyrgyz Republic07/15/197001/01/1971PositiveKyrgyz Republic prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central AsiaPension1999Labor Code of Kyrgyz Republic09/18/199710/01/1997PositiveKyrgyz Republic no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men. It explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2004Family Code of Kyrgyz Republic01/31/200303/12/2003PositiveKyrgyz Republic introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2004Law on Safeguarding and Protecting Against Domestic Violence03/25/200304/04/2003PositiveKyrgyz Republic enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2004Law on State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities for Men and Women01/31/200303/12/2003PositiveKyrgyz Republic enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central AsiaPay2006Labor Code of Kyrgyz Republic05/25/200408/04/2004PositiveKyrgyz Republic lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2006Labor Code of Kyrgyz Republic08/04/200408/04/2004PositiveKyrgyz Republic prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2008Government Decree Kyrgyz Republic dated August 14, 2006 No. 57608/14/200607/01/2006NegativeKyrgyz Republic enacted legislation that obliges employers to pay the first ten days of maternity leave.
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2010Law on State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities for Men and Women08/02/200808/02/2008PositiveKyrgyz Republic enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificMarriage1972Law No. 70-459 of 1970 amended Civil Code06/04/197006/04/1970PositiveLao PDR allowed women to be head of household.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificMobility1977Civil Code of the Lao People's Democratic Republic07/11/197507/11/1975PositiveLao PDR introduced new legislation allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificAssets1987Civil Code of the Lao People's Democratic Republic12/23/198512/23/1985PositiveLao PDR granted spouses equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificAssets1992Civil Code of the Lao People's Democratic Republic11/29/199012/24/1990PositiveLao PDR granted spouses equal rights to immovable property.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificMarriage1992Civil Code of the Lao People's Democratic Republic11/29/199012/24/1990PositiveLao PDR enacted a new family law, allowing women to obtain a divorce and remarry in the same way as men.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificWorkplace1992Family Law 199012/24/199012/24/1990PositiveLao PDR allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificParenthood1995Decree No. 24/PR of the President of the Republic, dated 21 April 1994 promulgating Act No. 002/NA of 14 March 1994 concerning labour04/21/199406/11/1994PositiveLao PDR prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificWorkplace1995Decree No. 24/PR of the President of the Republic, dated 21 April 1994 promulgating Act No. 002/NA of 14 March 1994 concerning labour04/21/199404/21/1994PositiveLao PDR prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificPension2001Decree on Social Security System for Enterprise Employees12/23/199907/01/2000PositiveLao PDR introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificMarriage2006Law on Development and Protection of Women 200410/22/200402/13/2005PositiveLao PDR enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificEntrepreneurship2007Penal Law 200511/09/200504/08/2006PositiveLao PDR amended its Penal Law that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificPay2008Labor Law (Amended)12/27/200603/27/2007PositiveLao PDR eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night. It also lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night, and allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificParenthood2015Labor Law12/24/201303/24/2014PositiveLao PDR increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificPension2015Law on Social Security07/26/201308/01/2013NegativeLao PDR set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It no longer explicitly accounts for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificWorkplace2015Labor Law12/24/201301/28/2014PositiveLao PDR enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
LatviaHigh income: OECDParenthood1972Law on the Fundamentals of Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Labor07/15/197001/01/1971PositiveLatvia increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
LatviaHigh income: OECDPension1972Labor Law12/09/197104/01/1972NegativeLatvia set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
LatviaHigh income: OECDParenthood1973Labor Law12/09/197112/09/1971PositiveLatvia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
LatviaHigh income: OECDPension1997Law on State Pensions11/06/199612/10/1996PositiveLatvia equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It no longer establishes an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
LatviaHigh income: OECDPay2003Labor Law12/12/200201/01/2002PositiveLatvia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value. It also eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining.
LatviaHigh income: OECDWorkplace2003Labor Law06/20/200106/20/2001PositiveLatvia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
LatviaHigh income: OECDParenthood2004Labor Law06/20/200106/01/2002PositiveLatvia introduced paid paternity leave. It also introduced paid parental leave.
LatviaHigh income: OECDWorkplace2005Labor Law04/22/200405/08/2004PositiveLatvia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
LatviaHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2009Consumers Rights Protection Law06/19/200807/23/2008PositiveLatvia amended its Consumer Rights Protection Law that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
LatviaHigh income: OECDMarriage2016Civil Procedure Code02/13/201403/31/2014PositiveLatvia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
LebanonMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2001Labor Code 05/26/200005/26/2000PositiveLebanon prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
LebanonMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2001Labor Code 05/26/200005/26/2000PositiveLebanon prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
LebanonMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2016Law on the Protection of Women and Family Members from Domestic Violence05/07/201405/15/2014PositiveLebanon enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
LebanonMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2022Law on Criminalizing Sexual Harassment and the Rehabilitation of its Victims12/21/202001/07/2021PositiveLebanon enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment and also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
LesothoSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1993 Land (Amendment) Order of 199203/10/199203/10/1992PositiveLesotho equalized inheritance rights for male and female surviving spouses.
LesothoSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1994Labor Code Order11/12/199211/12/1992PositiveLesotho prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
LesothoSub-Saharan AfricaPay1994Labor Code Order11/12/199211/12/1992PositiveLesotho mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
LesothoSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1994Labor Code Order11/12/199211/12/1992PositiveLesotho prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It also enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
LesothoSub-Saharan AfricaPension2006Old Age Pension (Pensions) Act 2005 03/16/200503/16/2005PositiveLesotho introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
LesothoSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2007Act No.9 of 2006 Legal Capacity of Married Persons01/01/200612/06/2006PositiveLesotho enacted the Legal Capacity of Married Persons Act abolishing the marital power provision to allow a woman to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
LesothoSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2007Act No.9 of 2006 Legal Capacity of Married Persons01/01/200612/06/2006PositiveLesotho allowed women to be head of household.
LesothoSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2007Act No.9 of 2006 Legal Capacity of Married Persons01/01/200612/06/2006PositiveLesotho introduced the Legal Capacity of Married Persons Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
LesothoSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2008Act No.9 of 2006 Legal Capacity of Married Persons11/01/200612/06/2006PositiveLesotho allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
LesothoSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2008Act No.9 of 2006 Legal Capacity of Married Persons01/01/200612/06/2006PositiveLesotho granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
LesothoSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2012Land Act 201001/01/201006/14/2010PositiveLesotho equalized inheritance rights for sons and daughters.
LiberiaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1974Domestic Relations Law - Title 9 - Liberian Code of Laws Revised of 197304/10/197304/10/1973PositiveLiberia granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
LiberiaSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship1974Domestic Relations Law - Title 9 - Liberian Code of Laws Revised of 197304/10/197304/10/1973PositiveLiberia enacted a new Domestic Relations Law allowing a woman to sing a legally biding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
LiberiaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1974Domestic Relations Law - Title 9 - Liberian Code of Laws Revised of 197304/10/197304/10/1973PositiveLiberia allowed women to be head of household.
LiberiaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1974Domestic Relations Law - Title 9 - Liberian Code of Laws Revised of 197304/10/1973#N/APositiveLiberia allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
LiberiaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2017An Act to Repeal Title 18 of the Executive Law, Labor Practices Law and to establish in lieu thereof the Decent Work Act 201506/26/201506/26/2015PositiveLiberia increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
LiberiaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2017An Act to Repeal Title 18 of the Executive Law, Labor Practices Law and to establish in lieu thereof the Decent Work Act 201506/26/201506/26/2015PositiveLiberia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
LiberiaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2017An Act to Repeal Title 18 of the Executive Law, Labor Practices Law and to establish in lieu thereof the Decent Work Act 201506/26/201506/26/2015PositiveLiberia prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
LiberiaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2019The Domestic Violence Act of 201901/19/201801/19/2018PositiveLiberia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
LibyaMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage1985Law No. (10) of 1984 regarding provisions for marriage and divorce and their effects04/19/198404/19/1984PositiveLibya no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
LibyaMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2011Law No. (12) For 2010 concerning of labor relations.01/28/201001/28/2010PositiveLibya prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
LibyaMiddle East & North AfricaPay2011Law No. (12) For 2010 concerning of labor relations.01/28/201001/28/2010PositiveLibya mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
LibyaMiddle East & North AfricaPension2011Law No. (12) For 2010 concerning of labor relations.01/28/201001/28/2010NegativeLibya set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
LibyaMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2011Law No. (12) For 2010 concerning of labor relations.01/28/201001/28/2010PositiveLibya prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDPension1972Law on State Social Insurance Pensions of the Republic of Lithuania12/09/197104/01/1972NegativeLithuania set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDParenthood1973Labor Code of the Republic of Lithuania12/09/197112/09/1971PositiveLithuania prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDWorkplace1973Labor Code of the Republic of Lithuania01/01/197201/01/1972PositiveLithuania prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDPension1974Labor Code of the Republic of Lithuania06/01/197206/01/1972PositiveLithuania no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDPension1996Law on State Social Insurance Pensions of the Republic of Lithuania07/18/199401/01/1995PositiveLithuania no longer establishes an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDPay2000Law on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men of the Republic of Lithuania12/01/199803/01/1999PositiveLithuania mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDWorkplace2000Law on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men of the Republic of Lithuania12/01/199803/01/1999PositiveLithuania enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDParenthood2002Labor Code of the Republic of Lithuania12/21/200001/01/2001PositiveLithuania introduced paid parental leave.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDWorkplace2002Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania09/26/2000#N/APositiveLithuania adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2004Law on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men of the Republic of Lithuania12/13/200412/13/2004PositiveLithuania introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDPay2004Law on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men of the Republic of Lithuania10/14/200311/05/2003PositiveLithuania eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining. It also lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDPension2005Law on State Social Insurance Pensions of the Republic of Lithuania11/18/200307/01/2004NegativeLithuania set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDParenthood2008Law on Sickness and Maternity Social Insurance12/20/200712/20/2007PositiveLithuania introduced paid paternity leave.
LithuaniaHigh income: OECDMarriage2013Law on Protection Against Domestic Violence of the Republic of Lithuania05/26/201112/15/2011PositiveLithuania enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDAssets1974Civil Code12/12/197212/25/1972PositiveLuxembourg granted spouses equal rights to immovable property.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship1974Grand-ducal Regulation of 10 July 1974 on Equal Pay for Men and Women12/12/197212/25/1972PositiveLuxembourg introduced new legislation allowing a woman to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDMarriage1974Civil Code12/12/197212/25/1972PositiveLuxembourg no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDMobility1974Civil Code12/12/197212/25/1972PositiveLuxembourg reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDWorkplace1974Civil Code12/12/197212/25/1972PositiveLuxembourg allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDAssets1975Civil Code02/04/197402/25/1974PositiveLuxembourg granted spouses equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDPay1976Grand-ducal Regulation of 10 July 1974 on Equal Pay for Men and Women07/10/197407/10/1974PositiveLuxembourg mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDParenthood1977Social Security Code07/03/197507/10/1975PositiveLuxembourg prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDWorkplace1983Act of 8 December 1981 Concerning Equal Treatment for Men and Women as Regards Access to Employment, Vocational Training and Promotion, and Working Conditions11/24/198112/08/1981PositiveLuxembourg prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDParenthood2000Law of 12 February 1999 concerning the implementation of the national action plan for employment 199801/01/199103/02/1999PositiveLuxembourg introduced paid parental leave.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDWorkplace2001Act of 26 May 2000 on Protection against Sexual Harassment in Labor Relations05/26/200007/04/2000PositiveLuxembourg enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDPension2002Social Security Code06/28/200106/28/2001PositiveLuxembourg explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDMarriage2005Domestic Violence Act of 8 September 200309/08/200310/07/2003PositiveLuxembourg enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDPay2008Labor Code10/24/200712/28/2007PositiveLuxembourg eliminated restrictions on women's employment in mining and in industrial undertakings at night.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2009Law of 21 December 2007 transposing Directive 2004/113/EC12/21/200712/24/2007PositiveLuxembourg introduced a new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDParenthood2012Labor Code08/03/201008/12/2010PositiveLuxembourg introduced paid paternity leave.
LuxembourgHigh income: OECDMarriage2016Civil Code07/04/201412/31/2014PositiveLuxembourg gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
MadagascarSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1977Law No. 2003-44 establishing the Labor Code05/17/197505/17/1975PositiveMadagascar prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
MadagascarSub-Saharan AfricaPension1996Social Security Code08/11/199408/11/1994PositiveMadagascar explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
MadagascarSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2002Law No. 2003-44 establishing the Labor Code09/12/200011/30/2000PositiveMadagascar enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
MadagascarSub-Saharan AfricaPay2006Law No. 2003-44 establishing the Labor Code07/28/200407/28/2004PositiveMadagascar lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
MadagascarSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2006Law No. 2003-44 establishing the Labor Code07/28/200407/28/2004PositiveMadagascar prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
MadagascarSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2009Law No. 2007-022 of 20 August 2007 Relating to Marriage and Matrimonial Regimes06/28/200708/20/2007PositiveMadagascar granted spouses equal rights to immovable property. Madagascar granted spouses equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
MadagascarSub-Saharan AfricaPension2015Social Security Code03/14/201307/02/2013PositiveMadagascar equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It also equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
MadagascarSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2021Law No. 2019-008 on Combating Gender-Based Violence12/13/201901/21/2020PositiveMadagascar enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MalawiSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1995Constitution of Malawi05/16/199405/16/1994PositiveMalawi's new constitution equalized inheritance rights for male and female surviving spouses.
MalawiSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2001Employment Act05/14/200009/01/2000PositiveMalawi prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
MalawiSub-Saharan AfricaPay2006Employment Act05/14/200009/01/2000PositiveMalawi mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
MalawiSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2001Employment Act05/14/200005/14/2000PositiveMalawi prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
MalawiSub-Saharan AfricaPay2001Employment Act05/14/200009/01/2000PositiveMalawi eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night.
MalawiSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2008Law on Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina12/29/200612/29/2006PositiveMalawi enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MalawiSub-Saharan AfricaPension2013Pension Act of 7 April 201104/01/201106/01/2011PositiveMalawi introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
MalawiSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2014Gender Equality Act04/19/201304/01/2014PositiveMalawi enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
MalawiSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2016Marriage, Divorce and Family Relations Act02/12/201504/17/2022PositiveMalawi passed the Marriage, Divorce and Family Relations Bill, which recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
MalawiSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2023Employment (Amendment) Act, 202107/07/202110/07/2021PositiveMalawi introduced paid paternity leave.
MalaysiaEast Asia & PacificAssets1986Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories) Act 198406/27/198406/27/1984PositiveMalaysia recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
MalaysiaEast Asia & PacificMarriage1996Domestic Violence Act 199407/07/199406/01/1996PositiveMalaysia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MalaysiaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2013Employment Act 195502/09/201204/01/2012PositiveMalaysia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
MaldivesSouth AsiaParenthood2009Employment Act05/26/200807/11/2008PositiveMaldives prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
MaldivesSouth AsiaPay2009Employment Act05/26/200807/11/2008PositiveMaldives allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
MaldivesSouth AsiaWorkplace2009Employment Act05/26/200805/26/2008PositiveMaldives prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
MaldivesSouth AsiaParenthood2010Employment Act05/26/200807/11/2008PositiveMaldives introduced paid paternity leave.
MaldivesSouth AsiaPension2010Maldives Pension Act05/13/200905/13/2009PositiveMaldives introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
MaldivesSouth AsiaMarriage2013Domestic Violence Act04/23/201204/23/2012PositiveMaldives enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MaldivesSouth AsiaWorkplace2015Sexual Harassment and Abuse Prevention Act 201404/27/201405/13/2014PositiveMaldives enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
MaldivesSouth AsiaEntrepreneurship2018Gender Equality Act08/23/201608/23/2016PositiveMaldives' Gender Equality Act made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
MaliSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1994Labor Code09/23/199209/23/1992PositiveMali increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
MaliSub-Saharan AfricaPension2001Law No. 99-41 of 12 August 1999 on the Social Security Code08/12/199908/12/1999PositiveMali explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
MaliSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2013Individual and Family Code12/30/201112/30/2011PositiveMali equalized inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
MaliSub-Saharan AfricaPay2019Law No. 2017-021/ of 12 June 2017 Amending Law No. 92-020 of 23 September 1992 on the Labor Code in the Republic of Mali06/12/201706/12/2017PositiveMali enacted legislation that mandates equal remuneration for work of equal value.
MaliSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2019Law No. 2017-021/ of 12 June 2017 Amending Law No. 92-020 of 23 September 1992 on the Labor Code in the Republic of Mali06/12/201706/12/2017PositiveMali enacted legislation that prohibits discrimination in employment based on gender.
MaliSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2019InterMinisterial Order n°2017-1670/MSPC-MAECI-MEF-MMEIA-SG of 2 June 2017 determining the conditions for issuing the National Biometric Passport06/02/201706/02/2017PositiveMali allowed women to apply for a passport in the same way as men.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaEntrepreneurship1975Civil Code11/21/197312/01/1973PositiveMalta allowed women to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without their husband's consent.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace1982OPM Circular No 103/8012/31/198012/31/1980PositiveMalta allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood1982Social Security Act04/07/198104/10/1981PositiveMalta prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaPension1988Social Security Act01/11/198701/11/1987NegativeMalta set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaAssets1995Civil Code08/20/199308/20/1993PositiveMalta granted spouses equal administrative authority over assets during the marriage. It also granted spouses equal rights to immovable property.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage1995Civil Code08/20/199308/20/1993PositiveMalta allowed women to be head of household.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaMobility1995Civil Code08/20/199308/20/1993PositiveMalta reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2001Protection of Maternity (Employment) Regulations01/01/200101/01/2001PositiveMalta increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaPay2003Employment and Industrial Relations Act12/02/200212/02/2002PositiveMalta mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaPension2004Employment and Industrial Relations Act12/02/200212/02/2002NegativeMalta set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2004Employment and Industrial Relations Act10/25/200212/02/2002PositiveMalta enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaEntrepreneurship2005Equality for Men and Women Act02/04/200312/09/2003PositiveMalta introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2005Equal Treatment in Employment Regulations11/05/200411/05/2004PositiveMalta prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2007Gender Based Violence and Domestic Violence Act12/16/200502/28/2006PositiveMalta enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2009Minimum Special Leave Entitlement Regulations06/29/200706/29/2007PositiveMalta introduced paid paternity leave.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2013Civil Code07/29/201110/01/2011PositiveMalta legalized divorce, equally granting the right to both spouses. There is no waiting period before remarriage for either spouse.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaPension2015Equality for Men and Women Act02/20/201502/20/2015PositiveMalta equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It also equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2023The Work-Life Balance for Parents and Carers Regulations, 202207/12/202208/02/2022PositiveMalta introduced paid parental leave.
Marshall IslandsEast Asia & PacificMarriage2013Domestic Violence Prevention and Protection Act 201109/29/201110/17/2011PositiveMarshall Islands enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Marshall IslandsEast Asia & PacificEntrepreneurship2021Gender Equality Act 201910/01/201910/01/2020PositiveThe Marshall Islands made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination when providing financial services.
Marshall IslandsEast Asia & PacificPay2021Gender Equality Act 201910/01/201910/01/2019PositiveThe Marshall Islands mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
Marshall IslandsEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2021Gender Equality Act 201910/01/201910/01/2019PositiveThe Marshall Islands prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
MauritaniaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1975Collective Labor Agreement02/13/197402/13/1974PositiveMauritania introduced paid paternity leave.
MauritaniaSub-Saharan AfricaPension2016Act No. 67-039 of 27 March 1967 establishing a social security scheme12/31/201412/31/2014PositiveMauritania equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It also equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaPension1978National Pensions Act10/22/197612/01/1976PositiveMauritius introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1981Code Civil10/31/198010/31/1980PositiveMauritius granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1982Code Civil10/31/198010/31/1980PositiveMauritius allowed women to be head of household.
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1982Code Civil10/31/198010/31/1980PositiveMauritius reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1999Protection from Domestic Violence Act05/27/199708/15/1997PositiveMauritius enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2000Criminal Code08/18/199808/22/1998PositiveMauritius enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2010Equal Opportunities Act 200812/30/200807/04/1905PositiveMauritius' Equal Opportunity Act made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2010Employment Rights Act 200809/23/200809/23/2008PositiveMauritius prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaPay2010Employment Rights Act 200809/23/200809/23/2008PositiveMauritius eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night.
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2010Equal Opportunities Act 200812/16/200812/16/2008PositiveMauritius prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaPay2014The Workers’ Rights Act 2019 – Act No. 20 of 201905/06/201305/09/2013PositiveMauritius mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2017Employment Rights Act 200805/14/201505/14/2015PositiveMauritius increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
MexicoLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1976Civil Code for the Federal District12/31/197403/03/1975PositiveMexico allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
MexicoLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1985Civil Code for the Federal District12/27/198312/27/1983PositiveMexico amended its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
MexicoLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1992Federal Penal Code12/20/199001/22/1991PositiveMexico enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
MexicoLatin America & CaribbeanAssets2001Civil Code for the Federal District05/25/200005/25/2000PositiveMexico recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
MexicoLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2001Civil Code for the Federal District05/25/200005/25/2000PositiveMexico gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
MexicoLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2008General Law on Women's Access to a Life Free of Violence02/01/200702/02/2007PositiveMexico enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MexicoLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2010Civil Code for the Federal District09/18/200810/03/2008PositiveMexico allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as a man.
MexicoLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2014Federal Labor Law11/30/201211/30/2012PositiveMexico prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
MexicoLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2014Federal Labor Law11/13/201211/13/2012PositiveMexico prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
MexicoLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship2015General Law for Equality between Women and Men10/08/201311/14/2013PositiveMexico's new legal amendments made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.East Asia & PacificMarriage2019An Act Adding a New Title 53 of the Pohnpei Code relative to Domestic Issues and Inserting a New Chapter 1 therein relating to Domestic Violence; amending 59 PC 4-101 of the Pohnpei Code to provide consistency therewith; and for other purposes11/07/201712/12/2017PositiveMicronesia, Fed. Sts. enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaPension1972Labor Code of the Republic of Moldova07/15/197001/01/1971NegativeMoldova set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1972Labor Code of the Republic of Moldova07/15/197001/01/1971PositiveMoldova prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2004Labor Code of the Republic of Moldova03/28/200310/01/2003PositiveMoldova prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1992Labor Code of the Republic of Moldova12/05/199012/05/1990PositiveMoldova introduced paid parental leave.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaPension1998Labor Code of the Republic of Moldova03/04/199703/04/1997PositiveMoldova no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaPension2000Law on State Pension System10/14/199801/01/1999PositiveMoldova explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaPay2004Labor Code of the Republic of Moldova03/28/200303/28/2003PositiveMoldova mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2007Law on State Registration of Legal Entities and Individual Entrepreneurs02/09/200602/09/2006PositiveMoldova introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2007Law on Equal Opportunities for Men and Women02/09/200603/24/2006PositiveMoldova enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2009Law on Preventing and Combating Family Violence03/01/200709/18/2008PositiveMoldova enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaPay2012Labor Code of the Republic of Moldova07/09/201009/07/2010PositiveMoldova lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2018Labor Code of the Republic of Moldova04/14/201605/27/2016PositiveMoldova introduced paid paternity leave.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaPay2019Labor Code of the Republic of Moldova07/20/201708/25/2017PositiveMoldova lifted restrictions on women’s ability to hold jobs deemed dangerous. It also eliminated restrictions on women’s ability to work in certain industries. Now, such restrictions are limited to women who are pregnant, nursing or postpartum.
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaPension2019Labor Code of the Republic of Moldova07/20/201708/25/2017NegativeMoldova introduced different mandatory retirement ages for women and men. Employers may now terminate the contracts of women at age 58 and 6 months and of men at age 63. The ages are set to equalize in 2028.
MongoliaEast Asia & PacificParenthood1992Labor Code01/24/199102/14/1991PositiveMongolia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
MongoliaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace1992Labor Code05/14/199007/01/1999PositiveMongolia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
MongoliaEast Asia & PacificPay2010Order No. 107 of 2008 Workplaces and Occupations that are a General Danger to the Health, Life, Ethics, Safety, and Development of Minors09/26/200809/26/2008PositiveMongolia eliminated all restrictions on women's employment.
MongoliaEast Asia & PacificEntrepreneurship2012Law on Promotion of Gender Equality02/02/201102/02/2011PositiveMongolia introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
MongoliaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2012Law on Promotion of Gender Equality02/02/201102/02/2011PositiveMongolia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
MongoliaEast Asia & PacificMarriage2018Law on Combating Domestic Violence12/22/201602/01/2007PositiveMongolia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MongoliaEast Asia & PacificParenthood2019Labor Code01/01/201801/01/2018PositiveMongolia introduced paid parental leave.
MongoliaEast Asia & PacificParenthood2023The Law of Mongolia 07/02/2021 on Labor07/02/202101/01/2022PositiveMongolia introduced paid paternity leave.
MongoliaEast Asia & PacificPay2023The Law of Mongolia 07/02/2021 on Labor07/02/202101/01/2022PositiveMongolia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
MontenegroEurope & Central AsiaPension1992Labor Law07/31/199007/31/1990PositiveMontenegro equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
MontenegroEurope & Central AsiaPension2004Law on Pension and Disability Insurance04/01/200304/01/2003PositiveMontenegro no longer establishes an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
MontenegroEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2005Labor Law07/09/200307/09/2003PositiveMontenegro prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
MontenegroEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2009Law on Gender Equality07/31/200708/08/2007PositiveMontenegro enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
MontenegroEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2012Law on Prohibition of Discrimination07/27/201007/27/2010PositiveMontenegro's Prohibition of Discrimination Law made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
MontenegroEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2012Law on Domestic Violence Protection07/27/201008/14/2010PositiveMontenegro enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MontenegroEurope & Central AsiaPension2012Labor Law08/15/200808/08/2008NegativeMontenegro set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
MontenegroEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2013Labor Law11/24/201112/12/2011PositiveMontenegro introduced paid parental leave.
MontenegroEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2014Law on Prohibition of Discrimination05/29/201206/04/2012PositiveMontenegro enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
MontenegroEurope & Central AsiaPay2021Labor Law12/30/201901/07/2020PositiveMontenegro eliminated restrictions on women's employment in industrial jobs such as mining, construction, manufacturing and the water sector. It also removed restrictions on women's employment in jobs deemed dangerous.
MoroccoMiddle East & North AfricaMobility1995Circular from the Ministry of the Interior No. 93-7704/19/199404/19/1994PositiveMorocco enacted new legislation which no longer requires a married woman her husband's consent when applying for a passport.
MoroccoMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace1997Commercial Code08/11/199508/11/1995PositiveMorocco allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
MoroccoMiddle East & North AfricaEntrepreneurship2005Law No. 24-03 amended Penal Code11/11/200301/15/2004PositiveMorocco amended its Penal Code that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
MoroccoMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2005Family Code02/03/200402/05/2004PositiveMorocco allowed women to be head of household. Morocco no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
MoroccoMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2006Labor Code09/11/200311/06/2004PositiveMorocco prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
MoroccoMiddle East & North AfricaPay2005Labor Code09/11/200309/11/2003PositiveMorocco mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
MoroccoMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2005Labor Code09/11/200309/11/2003PositiveMorocco prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
MoroccoMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2005Labor Code09/11/200309/11/2003PositiveMorocco increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
MoroccoMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2019Act No. 103-13 on combating violence against women02/22/201807/07/2018PositiveMorocco enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MozambiqueSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1987Law No. 23/200712/14/198506/14/1986PositiveMozambique prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
MozambiqueSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2006Family Law No. 10/200408/25/200402/25/2005PositiveMozambique granted spouses equal rights to immovable property.
MozambiqueSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2006Family Law No. 10/200408/25/200402/25/2005PositiveMozambique introduced a new Family Law allowing a woman to sing a legally biding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
MozambiqueSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2006The Civil Code of 196608/25/200402/25/2005PositiveMozambique allowed women to be head of household and gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
MozambiqueSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2006Family Law No. 10/200408/25/200402/25/2005PositiveMozambique introduced a new Family Law allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
MozambiqueSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2006Family Law No. 10/200408/25/200408/25/2004PositiveMozambique allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
MozambiqueSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2009Law No. 23/200705/11/200708/01/2007PositiveMozambique introduced paid paternity leave. It also began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
MozambiqueSub-Saharan AfricaPension2009Decree No. 5105/11/200707/07/2007PositiveMozambique explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
MozambiqueSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2009Law No. 23/200708/01/200711/01/2007PositiveMozambique prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
MozambiqueSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2011Law No. 29/200909/29/200903/29/2010PositiveMozambique enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
MozambiqueSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2019The Mozambique Code of Conduct for Institutions Credit and Financial Institutions of March 22, 201803/23/201803/23/2018PositiveMozambique made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
MyanmarEast Asia & PacificParenthood2014Social Security Law 201208/31/201208/31/2012PositiveMyanmar increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
NamibiaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1993Labor Act03/13/199204/08/1992PositiveNamibia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
NamibiaSub-Saharan AfricaPension1993Labor Act04/08/199204/16/1992PositiveNamibia introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
NamibiaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1996Social Security Act 34 of 199411/30/199401/15/1995PositiveNamibia began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
NamibiaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1997Married Person Equality Act of 199605/20/199605/28/1996PositiveNamibia removed the husband's marital power, granting spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
NamibiaSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship1997Married Person Equality Act of 199605/20/199605/28/1996PositiveNamibia enacted the Married Persons Equality Act abolishing the marital power provision to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
NamibiaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1997Married Person Equality Act of 199605/20/199605/28/1996PositiveNamibia allowed women to be head of household.
NamibiaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1997Married Person Equality Act of 199605/20/199605/28/1996PositiveNamibia introduced the Married Persons Equality Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
NamibiaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1997Married Person Equality Act of 199605/20/1996#N/APositiveNamibia allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
NamibiaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2005Combating of Domestic Violence Act, 200307/25/200311/17/2003PositiveNamibia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
NamibiaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2009Labor Act12/21/200711/01/2008PositiveNamibia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
NamibiaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2009Labor Act12/21/200711/01/2008PositiveNamibia prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
NepalSouth AsiaAssets2003The National Civil (Code) Act03/14/200203/14/2002PositiveNepal granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
NepalSouth AsiaMarriage2008Act to Amend Some Nepal Acts for Maintaining Gender Equality, 2063 (2006)09/28/200609/28/2006PositiveNepal allowed women to be head of household.
NepalSouth AsiaMarriage2010Domestic Violence (Crime and Punishment) Act, 2066 of 200904/27/200904/27/2009PositiveNepal enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
NepalSouth AsiaWorkplace2016The Sexual Harassment at Workplace (Prevention) Act, 2014 (2071)11/21/201402/20/2015PositiveNepal enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
NepalSouth AsiaAssets2019The National Civil (Code) Act10/16/201708/17/2018PositiveNepal equalized inheritance rights for sons and daughters and for male and female surviving spouses.
NepalSouth AsiaMarriage2019The National Civil (Code) Act10/16/201708/17/2018PositiveNepal allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as a man.
NepalSouth AsiaMobility2019The National Civil (Code) Act08/02/201708/17/2018NegativeNepal introduced a provision that restricts women from choosing where to live in the same way as men.
NepalSouth AsiaParenthood2019Labor Act 201709/04/201709/04/2017PositiveNepal introduced 15 days of paid paternity leave.
NepalSouth AsiaPay2019Labor Act 201709/04/201709/04/2017PositiveNepal lifted restrictions on women’s ability to work at night. It also mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
NepalSouth AsiaWorkplace2019Labor Act 201709/04/201709/04/2017PositiveNepal enacted new legislation that prohibits discrimination in employment based on gender.
NepalSouth AsiaParenthood2020Social Security Act 201811/22/201811/22/2018PositiveNepal increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
NepalSouth AsiaPension2020Social Security Act 201811/19/201811/19/2018PositiveNepal adopted its first old age pension system that allows both women and men to retire with full pension benefits at age 60. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
NetherlandsHigh income: OECDPay1976Council Directive of 10 February 1975 on the Approximation of the Laws of the Member States relating to the Application of the Principle of Equal Pay for Men and Women03/20/197503/20/1975PositiveThe Netherlands mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
NetherlandsHigh income: OECDWorkplace1981Equal Treatment Act03/01/198003/14/1980PositiveThe Netherlands prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
NetherlandsHigh income: OECDPay1987An Act to Amend the Labour Act 1919 by Making Provisions in Connection with the Cancellation of the Ban on Night Work by Women in Factories or Workplaces05/05/198605/05/1986PositiveThe Netherlands eliminated restrictions on women's ability to work at night in factories and other industrial workplaces.
NetherlandsHigh income: OECDPay1990Council Directive 76/207/EEC of 9 February 1976 on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions04/11/198904/11/1989PositiveThe Netherlands lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
NetherlandsHigh income: OECDParenthood1991Dutch Civil Code02/03/199002/22/1990PositiveThe Netherlands prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
NetherlandsHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship1995Equal Treatment Act03/02/199403/02/1994PositiveThe Netherlands' Equal Treatment Act made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
NetherlandsHigh income: OECDWorkplace2000Working Conditions Act03/18/199903/29/1999PositiveThe Netherlands enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
NetherlandsHigh income: OECDWorkplace2008Working Conditions Act11/03/200601/01/2007PositiveThe Netherlands adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
NetherlandsHigh income: OECDParenthood2010Work and Care Act06/10/200906/10/2009PositiveThe Netherlands introduced paid paternity leave.
NetherlandsHigh income: OECDMarriage2016Social Support Act 201507/09/2014#N/APositiveThe Netherlands enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
NetherlandsHigh income: OECDParenthood2023Decree of 26 April 202204/26/202208/02/2022PositiveThe Netherlands introduced paid parental leave.
New ZealandHigh income: OECDAssets1978Married Women's Property Act12/14/197602/01/1977PositiveNew Zealand explicitly recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
New ZealandHigh income: OECDMobility1978Domicile Act of 197608/31/197608/31/1976PositiveNew Zealand introduced the Domicile Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
New ZealandHigh income: OECDWorkplace1979Human Rights Act 199311/21/197711/21/1977PositiveNew Zealand prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
New ZealandHigh income: OECDParenthood1982Maternity Leave and Employment Protection Act 198001/13/198104/01/1981PositiveNew Zealand prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
New ZealandHigh income: OECDPay1983Factories and Commercial Premises Act 198103/23/198103/23/1982PositiveNew Zealand lifted the ban on women's employment
New ZealandHigh income: OECDWorkplace1988Labour Relations Act 198705/27/198708/01/1987PositiveNew Zealand enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
New ZealandHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship1995Property (Relationships) Act of 197608/10/199302/01/1994PositiveNew Zealand introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
New ZealandHigh income: OECDMarriage1997Family Violence (Amendments) Act 201812/15/1995#N/APositiveNew Zealand enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
New ZealandHigh income: OECDParenthood2003Parental Leave and Employment Protection Act 198703/30/200207/01/2002PositiveNew Zealand's government began administering maternity benefits.
New ZealandHigh income: OECDParenthood2007Parental Leave and Employment Protection Act 198712/01/200412/01/2005PositiveNew Zealand increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
New ZealandHigh income: OECDParenthood2017Parental Leave and Employment Protection Act 198703/17/201604/01/2016PositiveNew Zealand introduced paid parental leave.
New ZealandHigh income: OECDPay2021Equal Pay Amendment Act 2020 08/06/202010/31/2020PositiveNew Zealand mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
NicaraguaLatin America & CaribbeanPension1983GENERAL REGULATION OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY Law (Executive Decree No. 7 of 1956)02/11/198203/01/1982NegativeNicaragua no longer explicitly accounts for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
NicaraguaLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1989Family Code04/28/198804/29/1988PositiveNicaragua recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions, including domestic work.
NicaraguaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1989Family Code04/28/198804/29/1988PositiveNicaragua allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
NicaraguaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1998Labor Code09/05/199610/30/1996PositiveNicaragua prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
NicaraguaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2009Penal Code05/09/200807/08/2008PositiveNicaragua enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
NicaraguaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2009Penal Code11/16/200711/23/2007PositiveNicaragua enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
NicaraguaLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship2015Law No. 842 on the Protection of the Rights of Consumers and Users06/13/201306/13/2013PositiveNicaragua's new legal amendments made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
NicaraguaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2016Family Code06/24/201408/27/2014PositiveNicaragua allowed women to be head of household and gave them the same rights to remarry as men.
NicaraguaLatin America & CaribbeanMobility2016Family Code06/24/201404/08/2015PositiveNicaragua introduced a new Family Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
NicaraguaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2016Family Code06/24/201404/08/2015PositiveNicaragua introduced paid paternity leave.
NigerSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1974Interprofessional collective agreement of 15 December 1972 Notice relating to the extension of the interprofessional collective agreement12/15/197205/10/1973PositiveNiger introduced paid paternity leave.
NigerSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1998Law No. 2012-45 on the Labor Code06/29/199606/29/1996PositiveNiger prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
NigerSub-Saharan AfricaPay1998Law No. 2012-45 on the Labor Code06/29/199606/29/1996PositiveNiger mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
NigerSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1998Law No. 2012-45 on the Labor Code06/29/199606/29/1996PositiveNiger prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
NigerSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2005Penal Code of Niger (2003) as amended by Law No. 2008-1806/13/200304/07/2004PositiveNiger enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
NigerSub-Saharan AfricaPay2019Decree No. 2017-682/PRN/MET/PS of 10 August 2017 on the regulatory part of the Labor Code08/10/201708/10/2017PositiveNiger removed restrictions on women’s employment in mining, construction and manufacturing. Women can now work in these industries in the same way as men.
NigeriaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1973Administration of Estates Law of Lagos05/25/190505/25/1905PositiveNigeria equalized inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
NigeriaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2008Lagos State of Nigeria a Law to provide protection against domestic violence and for connected purposes05/18/200705/18/2007PositiveNigeria enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
NigeriaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2013A Bill for a Law to provide rules on criminal conduct, regulate public order and for connected purposes 08/08/201108/08/2011PositiveNigeria enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
NigeriaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2022Passport application procedures11/03/202011/03/2020PositiveNigeria allowed women to apply for a passport in the same way as men.
North MacedoniaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2007Criminal Code07/22/200507/30/2005PositiveNorth Macedonia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
North MacedoniaEurope & Central AsiaPension1995Criminal Code12/27/199312/27/1993PositiveNorth Macedonia equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
North MacedoniaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2004Act of 31 March 2003 to Amend and Supplement the Labour Relations Act03/31/200304/16/2003PositiveNorth Macedonia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
North MacedoniaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2007Law on Equal Opportunities for Men and Women05/29/200606/06/2006PositiveNorth Macedonia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
North MacedoniaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2010Criminal Code07/10/200907/10/2009PositiveNorth Macedonia introduced paid paternity leave.
North MacedoniaEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2011Law on Ownership and Other Real Rights04/08/201004/13/2010PositiveNorth Macedonia introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
North MacedoniaEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2016Law on Prevention, Suppression and Protection from Domestic Violence09/17/201401/01/2015PositiveNorth Macedonia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
NorwayHigh income: OECDParenthood1978Holidays Act No. 21 of 198804/21/197805/05/1978PositiveNorway prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It began administering maternity benefits. It also introduced paid parental leave.
NorwayHigh income: OECDPay1980Act (No. 45 of 1978) relating to Gender Equality (Gender Equality Act)06/09/197806/09/1978PositiveNorway mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
NorwayHigh income: OECDWorkplace1980Act on Gender Equality (the Gender Equality Act)06/09/197806/09/1978PositiveNorway prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
NorwayHigh income: OECDMarriage1993Marriage Act07/04/199101/01/1993PositiveNorway gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
NorwayHigh income: OECDPension1993Care Credits Program 199208/31/199208/31/1992PositiveNorway explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
NorwayHigh income: OECDParenthood1994National Insurance Act05/27/199505/27/1995PositiveNorway introduced paid paternity leave.
NorwayHigh income: OECDWorkplace2004Equality and Anti-Discrimination Act06/14/200207/01/2002PositiveNorway enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
NorwayHigh income: OECDMarriage2010Amendment Act to the Criminal Code No. 28 of 20 May 200506/19/200906/19/2009PositiveNorway enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
OmanMiddle East & North AfricaPension1993Social Insurance Law07/02/199107/02/1991PositiveOman introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
OmanMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2004Labor Law04/26/200306/03/2003PositiveOman enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
OmanMiddle East & North AfricaMobility2022Passport Application Procedures01/01/202101/01/2021PositiveOman allowed women to apply for a passport in the same way as men.
PakistanSouth AsiaPension1977Employees Old Age Benefits Act04/05/197604/19/1976PositivePakistan introduced an old-age pension system that does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
PakistanSouth AsiaEntrepreneurship1986Companies Act of 201710/08/198410/08/1984NegativePakistan introduced a new companies law that prescribes additional procedures for women when registering a business compared to men.
PakistanSouth AsiaPension1988Employees Old Age Benefits Act06/29/198607/01/1986NegativePakistan set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
PakistanSouth AsiaWorkplace2011The Protection Against Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act 201003/11/201003/11/2010PositivePakistan enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
PakistanSouth AsiaMarriage2014The Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Act, 201303/12/201303/12/2013PositivePakistan enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
PakistanSouth AsiaWorkplace2018The Sindh Terms of Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 2015. Sindh Act No. XI of 2016. 04/12/201604/12/2016PositivePakistan prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
PakistanSouth AsiaParenthood2019The Sindh Maternity Benefits Act05/23/201805/23/2018PositivePakistan increased the duration of paid maternity leave from 84 to 112 days.
PakistanSouth AsiaEntrepreneurship2021Companies (Amendment) Ordinance05/05/202005/05/2020PositivePakistan allowed women to register a business in the same way as a men.
PakistanSouth AsiaEntrepreneurship2022The Companies (Amendment) Bill, 202008/26/202008/26/2020NegativePakistan failed to convert into law a decree that would permanently equalize men’s and women’s ability to register a business.
PakistanSouth AsiaPay2022The Sindh Shops and Commercial Establishment (Amendment) Act, 2021. Sindh Act No.XXV of 2021.07/05/202107/28/2021PositivePakistan lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
PakistanSouth AsiaEntrepreneurship 2023Companies (Amendment) Act, 202112/04/202112/04/2021PositivePakistan allowed women to register a business in the same way as men.
PalauEast Asia & PacificMarriage2014Palau Family Protection Act11/01/201211/13/2012PositivePalau enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
PanamaLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1995Family Code04/27/199405/17/1994PositivePanama recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
PanamaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1995Family Code04/27/199405/17/1994PositivePanama allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
PanamaLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1995Family Code04/27/199405/17/1994PositivePanama allowed women to choose where to live in the same way as men.
PanamaLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship 1996Family Code10/17/199410/17/1994PositivePanama allowed women to register a business in the same way as men.
PanamaLatin America & CaribbeanPay1996Judgment of the Supreme Court of Justice (Panama), 3rd Administrative and Labor Contentious, August 2, 199404/29/199404/29/1994PositivePanama removed ban on women's employment in mining and construction.
PanamaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1996Supreme Court Decision of July 12 of 1994 - Action of Unconstitutionality formulated by Lcda. MariBlanca against Art. 31 of Commercial Code.; Supreme Court of Justice - October 1994 - Action of Unconstitutionality formulated by Lcda. Mill against Arts. 1, 2, and 57 of the Commercial Code10/17/199410/17/1994PositivePanama allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
PanamaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1997Labor Code08/12/199508/14/1995PositivePanama enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
PanamaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2003Law No. 38 of 200107/10/200107/23/2001PositivePanama enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
PanamaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2006Law No. 11 of 2005 on prohibiting labor discrimination04/22/200504/22/2005PositivePanama prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
PanamaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2015Law No. 82 of 201310/04/201310/24/2013PositivePanama adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
PanamaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2018Law No. 27 of 201705/23/201705/24/2017PositivePanama introduced paid paternity leave.
Papua New GuineaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace1980Employment Act 197808/21/197801/01/1981PositivePapua New Guinea prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Papua New GuineaEast Asia & PacificPension1982Superannuation Regulation 200201/01/198001/01/1980PositivePapua New Guinea introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Papua New GuineaEast Asia & PacificMarriage2015Family Protection Act 201309/18/201303/11/2014PositivePapua New Guinea enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
ParaguayLatin America & CaribbeanPay1976Labor Code12/27/197402/25/1975PositiveParaguay lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
ParaguayLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1987Law No. 1/92 on the Partial Reform of the Civil Code12/18/198512/23/1985PositiveParaguay introduced a Civil Code allowing a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man.
ParaguayLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1994Law No. 1/92 on the Partial Reform of the Civil Code07/15/199207/15/1992PositiveParaguay granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
ParaguayLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship1994Law No. 1/92 on the Partial Reform of the Civil Code07/15/199207/15/1992PositiveParaguay amended its Civil Code allowing a woman to register a business in the same way as a man without her husband's consent.
ParaguayLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1994Law No. 45/91 Establishing the Tied Divorce of Marriage10/01/199110/01/1991PositiveParaguay allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men and gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
ParaguayLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1994Law No. 213 established the Labor Code10/29/199310/29/1993PositiveParaguay allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband. It also prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ParaguayLatin America & CaribbeanPay1995Law that Modifies the Law that Establishes the Labor Code_202106/29/199310/29/1993PositiveParaguay mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value. It also eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night.
ParaguayLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1999Penal Code10/26/199711/26/1997PositiveParaguay enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
ParaguayLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship2000Law No. 1.334/98 on Consumer and User Protection10/27/199810/30/1998PositiveParaguay introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
ParaguayLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2002Law No. 1600 against domestic violence09/21/2000#N/APositiveParaguay enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
ParaguayLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2017Law Nº 5508 / PROMOTION, PROTECTION OF MATERNITY AND SUPPORT FOR BREASTFEEDING10/28/201510/29/2015PositiveParaguay increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1986Civil Code07/24/198411/14/1984PositivePeru's new Civil Code granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage. It also recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1986Civil Code07/24/198411/14/1984PositivePeru allowed women to be head of household.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1986Civil Code07/24/198411/14/1984PositivePeru introduced a new Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1986Civil Code07/25/198411/14/1984PositivePeru allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanPension1993Legislative Decree Num. 728, which enacts the employment promotion Law11/08/199112/20/1991NegativePeru set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1995Law No. 26260 on Protection from Family Violence12/08/199312/25/1993PositivePeru enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanPension1997Law No. 26504 Modifies the Health Benefits Regime, the National Pension System, the Private Pension Funds and the structure of contributions to FONAVI07/17/199507/18/1995PositivePeru equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1998Supreme Decree No. 003-97-TR Labor Productivity and Competitiveness Law03/21/199703/28/1997PositivePeru prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanPension1998Supreme Decree No. 003-97-TR Labor Productivity and Competitiveness Law03/21/199703/28/1997PositivePeru equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1998Law No. 26772 provides that offers of employment and access to educational training may not contain requirements that constitute discrimination, annulment or alteration of equal opportunities or treatment03/26/199704/17/1997PositivePeru prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship2000Consumer Protection and Defense Code12/28/199812/31/1998PositivePeru's new legal amendments made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2004Law No. 27942 Law on the Prevention and Punishment of Sexual Harassment02/26/200302/27/2003PositivePeru enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanPay2008Law No. 28983 Law on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men03/16/200703/17/2007PositivePeru mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2011Law No. 30807 of 4 July 2018, amending Law No. 29409, which grants the right to paternity leave to workers in the public and private sectors09/18/200909/19/2009PositivePeru introduced paid paternity leave.
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2017Law No. 30367 Law PROTECTING THE MOTHER WORKER AGAINST AARBITRARY DISMISSAL AND EXTENDING HER RESTING PERIOD11/06/201511/25/2015PositivePeru increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificParenthood1974Presidential Decree No. 24, s. 197210/19/197210/19/1972PositiveThe Philippines's social security system began administering maternity benefits.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificParenthood1975Labor Code05/01/197405/01/1974PositiveThe Philippines prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificEntrepreneurship1989Family Code06/06/198706/06/1987PositiveThe Philippines introduced a new Family Code allowing a woman to sign a legally binding contract, open a bank account, and register a business in the same way as a man without her husband's consent.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificMobility1989Family Code06/06/198706/06/1987PositiveThe Philippines introduced a Family Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificWorkplace1989Family Code07/06/198707/21/1987PositiveThe Philippines allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificPay1990Labor Code05/12/198905/27/1989PositiveThe Philippines mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificEntrepreneurship1993Women in Development and Nation Building Act (Republic Act No. 7192)12/11/199112/11/1991PositiveThe Philippines introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificWorkplace1996Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995 (Republic Act No. 7877)02/14/199503/05/1995PositiveThe Philippines enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificParenthood1998Paternity Leave Act of 1996 (Republic Act No. 8187)06/11/199607/07/1996PositiveThe Philippines introduced paid paternity leave.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificMarriage2005Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004 (Republic Act No. 9262)03/08/200403/27/2004PositiveThe Philippines enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificPay2013Republic Act No. 10151 An Act Allowing the Employment of Night Workers, thereby Repealing Articles 130 and 131 of Presidential Decree Number Four Hundred Forty-two, as Amended, Otherwise Known as the Labor Code of the Philippines06/21/201107/06/2011PositiveThe Philippines eliminated restrictions on women's ability to work in industrial undertakings at night. It also lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificParenthood2020105-Day Expanded Maternity Leave Law (Republic Act No. 11210)02/20/201903/07/2019NegativeThe Philippines enacted legislation that obliges employers to share in the administration of maternity benefits.
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificParenthood2020105-Day Expanded Maternity Leave Law (Republic Act No. 11210)02/20/201903/07/2019PositiveThe Philippines extended the duration of paid maternity leave from 60 to 105 days.
PolandHigh income: OECDParenthood1974Act of 26 June 1974 - Labor Code07/06/197207/06/1972PositivePoland increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
PolandHigh income: OECDParenthood1976Act of 26 June 1974 - Labor Code06/26/197406/26/1974PositivePoland prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
PolandHigh income: OECDPension1976Act of 26 June 1974 - Labor Code06/26/197406/26/1974NegativePoland set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
PolandHigh income: OECDPension1984Act of 14 December 1982 on Pension Supply to Employees and Their Families12/14/198212/14/1982NegativePoland set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
PolandHigh income: OECDMarriage1999Act of 29 July 2005 on Counteracting Domestic Violence06/06/199709/01/1998PositivePoland enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
PolandHigh income: OECDPension2000Act of 17 December 1998 on Old-Age and Disability Pensions from Social Insurance12/17/199812/17/1998PositivePoland no longer establishes an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
PolandHigh income: OECDPay2009Act of 3 December 2010 on Implementation of Certain European Union Provisions in Equal Treatment10/21/200910/21/2009PositivePoland mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
PolandHigh income: OECDWorkplace2010Act of 3 December 2010 on Implementation of Certain European Union Provisions in Equal Treatment11/21/200811/21/2008PositivePoland enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
PolandHigh income: OECDParenthood2011Act of 3 December 2010 on Implementation of Certain European Union Provisions in Equal Treatment11/25/201011/28/2010PositivePoland introduced paid paternity leave.
PolandHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2012Act of 3 December 2010 on Implementation of Certain European Union Provisions in Equal Treatment12/03/201001/01/2011PositivePoland's Equal Treatment Act made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
PolandHigh income: OECDWorkplace2012Act of 3 December 2010 on Implementation of Certain European Union Provisions in Equal Treatment12/10/201001/01/2011PositivePoland prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
PolandHigh income: OECDParenthood2014Act of 26 June 1974 - Labor Code03/17/201303/17/2013PositivePoland introduced paid parental leave.
PolandHigh income: OECDPension2014Act of 17 December 1998 on Old-Age and Disability Pensions from Social Insurance05/11/201205/11/2012NegativePoland set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
PolandHigh income: OECDPay2018Act of 26 June 1974 - Labor Code08/03/201608/03/2016PositivePoland allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men. It also removed all restrictions on women's employment.
PolandHigh income: OECDPension2018Act of 17 December 1998 on Old-Age and Disability Pensions from Social Insurance11/16/201601/05/2017PositivePoland no longer establishes an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
PortugalHigh income: OECDAssets1979Constitution of the Portuguese Republic10/06/197704/01/1978PositivePortugal granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
PortugalHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship1979Portuguese Civil Code11/25/197704/01/1978PositivePortugal amended its Civil Code allowing a woman to sing a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
PortugalHigh income: OECDMarriage1979Portuguese Civil Code11/25/197704/01/1978PositivePortugal allowed women to be head of household.
PortugalHigh income: OECDMobility1979Portuguese Civil Code11/25/197704/01/1978PositivePortugal reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
PortugalHigh income: OECDWorkplace1979Decree-Law No. 496/77 of November 25 197711/25/197704/01/1978PositivePortugal allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
PortugalHigh income: OECDPay1981Labor Code08/31/197909/20/1979PositivePortugal mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
PortugalHigh income: OECDMobility1990Decree-Law No. 83/200010/15/198801/01/1989PositivePortugal introduced new legislation which no longer establishes differences in the application procedures for a married woman when applying for a passport.
PortugalHigh income: OECDPension1995Decree-Law No. 91/200909/25/199301/01/1994PositivePortugal explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
PortugalHigh income: OECDMarriage1996Penal Code03/15/199510/01/1995PositivePortugal enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
PortugalHigh income: OECDParenthood1997Decree-Law No. 91/200906/09/199506/09/1995PositivePortugal increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
PortugalHigh income: OECDParenthood2001Decree-Law No. 91/200908/31/199908/31/1999PositivePortugal introduced paid paternity leave.
PortugalHigh income: OECDPay2005Labor Code08/27/200308/27/2003PositivePortugal removed restrictions on women's employment in industrial undertakings.
PortugalHigh income: OECDWorkplace2005Labor Code08/27/200312/01/2003PositivePortugal enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
PortugalHigh income: OECDWorkplace2006Law No. 99/2003 Approving the Labor Code08/06/200308/27/2003PositivePortugal prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
PortugalHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2009Law No. 14/200803/12/200803/15/2008PositivePortugal introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
PortugalHigh income: OECDParenthood2010Labor Code02/12/200902/12/2009PositivePortugal introduced paid parental leave.
PortugalHigh income: OECDMarriage2021Law No. 85/201908/06/201910/01/2019PositivePortugal gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
Puerto RicoLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship1976Equal Credit Opportunity10/28/197410/28/1974PositivePuerto Rico's Equal Credit Opportunity Act made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Puerto RicoLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1978Civil Code06/02/197604/02/1976PositivePuerto Rico made both spouses administrators of marital property, granting them equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
Puerto RicoLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1978Civil Code06/02/197604/02/1976PositivePuerto Rico no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
Puerto RicoLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1978Civil Code06/02/197604/02/1976PositivePuerto Rico reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
Puerto RicoLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1989Law No. 17 of 22 April 198804/22/198806/21/1988PositivePuerto Rico enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Puerto RicoLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1991Law No. 54 of 1989 (Domestic Violence Law)08/15/198908/15/1989PositivePuerto Rico enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Puerto RicoLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2021Civil Code06/01/202006/01/2020PositivePuerto Rico gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
QatarMiddle East & North AfricaPay2006Law No. (14) of 2004 promulgating the Labor Law05/19/200405/19/2004NegativeQatar prohibited women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
QatarMiddle East & North AfricaMobility2008Law No. (5) of 2007 amending some provisions of Decree-Law No. (14) of 1993 regarding passports05/13/200705/13/2007PositiveQatar introduced new legal amendments which no longer requires a married woman her guardian's consent when applying for a passport.
RomaniaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1973Law Number: 10 of 25/11/72 Labor Code11/25/197203/01/1973PositiveRomania prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
RomaniaEurope & Central AsiaPension1974Law Number: 10 of 25/11/72 Labor Code11/25/197202/25/1973NegativeRomania set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
RomaniaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2001Law No. 210 of 31 December 1999 on Parental Leave12/15/199912/31/1999PositiveRomania introduced paid paternity leave. It also introduced paid parental leave.
RomaniaEurope & Central AsiaPay2003Law No. 202 of 19 April 2002 on Equal Opportunities Between Women and Men04/19/200205/19/2002PositiveRomania mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
RomaniaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2003Law No. 202 of 19 April 2002 on Equal Opportunities Between Women and Men05/08/200206/07/2002PositiveRomania enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
RomaniaEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2004Law No.217 of 22 May 2003 on Preventing and Combatting Domestic Violence05/22/200308/27/2003PositiveRomania enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
RomaniaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2004Law No. 202 of 19 April 2002 on Equal Opportunities Between Women and Men01/24/200303/01/2003PositiveRomania prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
RomaniaEurope & Central AsiaPay2004Labor Code of 200301/24/200303/01/2003PositiveRomania lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
RomaniaEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2008Law No. 202 of 19 April 2002 on Equal Opportunities Between Women and Men07/14/200609/15/2006PositiveRomania's new legal amendments made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Russian FederationEurope & Central AsiaPension1972The Law of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of July 15, 1970 on the Approval of the Fundamentals of Labour Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics07/01/197001/01/1971NegativeThe Russian Federation set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
Russian FederationEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1973Labor Code of the Russian Federation 12/09/197104/01/1972PositiveThe Russian Federation prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Russian FederationEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1973Labor Code of the Russian Federation 12/09/197104/01/1972PositiveThe Russian Federation prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Russian FederationEurope & Central AsiaPension1992Law on State Pensions in the Russian Federation11/20/199011/20/1990PositiveThe Russian Federation explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Russian FederationEurope & Central AsiaPension1993Labor Code of the Russian Federation 03/12/199203/12/1992PositiveThe Russian Federation no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
Russian FederationEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1994Law of the Russian Federation On the Introduction of Amendments and Additions to the Code of Labor Laws of the RSFSR09/25/199210/06/1992PositiveThe Russian Federation introduced paid parental leave.
Russian FederationEurope & Central AsiaPay2003Labor Code of the Russian Federation 12/30/200102/01/2002PositiveThe Russian Federation lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night. It also mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
RwandaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2001Law No. 22 of 1999 amended Civil Code11/12/199911/15/1999PositiveRwanda reformed its Civil Code, granting spouses equal rights to immovable property and equalizing inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
RwandaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2003Law No. 51/2001 of 30/12/2001 Establishing the New Labour Code12/30/200112/30/2001PositiveRwanda allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men. It also eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night.
RwandaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2003Law No. 51/2001 of 30/12/2001 Establishing the New Labour Code12/30/200112/30/2001PositiveRwanda prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
RwandaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2004Ministerial Order No. 3 of 13/7/2010 on determining circumstantial leaves03/14/200303/14/2003PositiveRwanda introduced paid paternity leave.
RwandaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2010Law on Prevention and Punishment of Gender-Based Violence07/15/200809/10/2008PositiveRwanda enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
RwandaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2010Law on Prevention and Punishment of Gender-Based Violence09/10/200804/06/2009PositiveRwanda enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
RwandaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2018Law Governing Persons and Family08/28/201609/12/2016PositiveRwanda allowed women to be head of household.
RwandaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2018Law Governing Persons and Family08/28/201609/12/2016PositiveRwanda introduced new legislation allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
RwandaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2020Law No. 66/2018 of 30/08/2018 Regulating Labor in Rwanda08/30/201809/06/2018PositiveRwanda introduced equal remuneration for work of equal value
RwandaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2021Law No. 001/2020 of 02/02/2020 Amending Law No. 32/2016 of 28/08/2016 governing persons and family02/02/202002/17/2020PositiveRwanda gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
SamoaEast Asia & PacificPension1973National Provident Fund Act03/23/197203/23/1972PositiveSamoa introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
SamoaEast Asia & PacificAssets2012Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Ordinance 196108/16/201008/16/2010PositiveSamoa recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions, including unpaid work caring for family members.
SamoaEast Asia & PacificMarriage2014Family Safety Act 201304/05/201306/01/2013PositiveSamoa enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
SamoaEast Asia & PacificParenthood2014Labor and Employment Relations Act 201304/05/201304/05/2013PositiveSamoa prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
SamoaEast Asia & PacificPay2014Labor and Employment Relations Act 201304/05/201304/05/2013PositiveSamoa lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
SamoaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2014Labor and Employment Relations Act 201304/05/201304/05/2013PositiveSamoa prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
San MarinoEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1982Law No. 40 of 25 March 198105/24/198106/04/1981PositiveSan Marino prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
San MarinoEurope & Central AsiaAssets1987Law No. 49 of 26 April 1986, Reform of Family Law04/26/198604/26/1986PositiveSan Marino recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
San MarinoEurope & Central AsiaMarriage1987Law No. 49 of 26 April 1986, Reform of Family Law04/26/198604/26/1986PositiveSan Marino allowed women to be head of household. San Marino legalized divorce, allowing women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
San MarinoEurope & Central AsiaMobility1987Law No. 49 of 26 April 1986, Reform of Family Law04/26/198604/26/1986PositiveSan Marino reformed its Family Law removing restriction for a married woman to choose where to live and leave the marital home without her husband's permission.
San MarinoEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1987Law No. 49 of 26 April 1986, Reform of Family Law04/26/198607/01/1986PositiveSan Marino allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
San MarinoEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2009Law No. 97 of 20 June 200806/18/200806/23/2008PositiveSan Marino enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1977Law No.25/7512/15/197512/15/1975PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe enacted new legislation which no longer establishes differences in the application procedures for a married woman when applying for a passport.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1979Law No. 2/1977 - Regulation of Family Institutions09/28/197709/28/1977PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship1979Law No. 2/1977 - Regulation of Family Institutions09/28/197709/28/1977PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe enacted a new Family Law allowing a woman to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1979Law No. 2/1977 - Regulation of Family Institutions09/28/197709/28/1977PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe allowed women to be head of household.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1979Law No. 2/1977 - Regulation of Family Institutions09/28/197709/28/1977PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe introduced a Family Law allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1979Law No. 2/1977 - Regulation of Family Institutions09/28/197709/28/1977PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1980Law n°6-92 on the Legal Regime of Individual Conditions of Employment12/31/197912/31/1979PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe introduced a social security system that administers maternity benefits.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaPension1981Law n°7-04 of the Social Protection Framework07/31/197907/31/1979PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe introduced an old-age pension system that does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1993Law No. 6/1992 - Legal Regime of Individual Working Conditions06/11/199206/11/1992PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2010Law No. 11/2008 - Law on Domestic and Family Violence08/15/200810/29/2008Positive São Tomé and Príncipe enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2014Law No. 6/2012 - Penal Code07/05/201208/06/2012PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaPension2016Decree-Law No. 25/2014 - Regulation on Mandatory Social Protection09/25/201411/07/2014PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2020Law No. 6/2019 - Labor Code04/11/201907/11/2019PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaPay2020Law No. 6/2019 - Labor Code08/31/201811/16/2018PositiveSão Tomé and Príncipe lifted restrictions on women’s ability to work at night, in mining and in jobs deemed dangerous.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2007Labor Law Royal Decree No. M/5109/27/200504/28/2006PositiveSaudi Arabia introduced paid paternity leave.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaPay2012Ministerial Order No. 2370/1 of 18 September 201009/18/201009/18/2010PositiveSaudi Arabia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2015Law on the Protection from Harm08/26/201309/21/2013PositiveSaudi Arabia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2019Anti-Harassment Law Royal Decree No. M/9605/31/201806/08/2018PositiveSaudi Arabia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaEntrepreneurship2020Banking Consumer Protection Principles; Finance Companies Consumer Protection Principles07/24/201907/24/2019PositiveSaudi Arabia made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2020Royal Decree No. M/13407/30/201908/02/2019PositiveSaudi Arabia began allowing women to be head of household and removed the legal obligation for a married woman to obey her husband.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaMobility2020Royal Decree No. M/13407/30/201908/02/2019PositiveSaudi Arabia improved women’s mobility by removing restrictions on obtaining a passport and traveling abroad. New legal amendments also equalized a woman’s right to choose where to live and leave the marital home.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2020Labor Law07/30/201907/30/2019PositiveSaudi Arabia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaPension2020Labor Law07/30/201907/30/2019PositiveSaudi Arabia equalized the age (60 years) at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It also mandated a retirement age of 60 years for both women and men.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2020Labor Law07/30/201907/30/2019PositiveSaudi Arabia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaPay2021Royal Decree No. (M/5) dated 1-7-1442 AH08/26/202008/26/2020PositiveSaudi Arabia eliminated all restrictions on women's employment.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2023Personal Status Law03/09/202206/19/2022NegativeSaudi Arabia enacted legislation mandating women to obey their husbands.
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaMobility2023Personal Status Law03/09/202206/19/2022NegativeSaudi Arabia restricted women’s right to choose where to live and travel outside the home in the same way as men.
SenegalSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1974Family Code06/12/197201/01/1973PositiveSenegal allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
SenegalSub-Saharan AfricaPension1979IPRES Internal Regulations07/26/197707/26/1977PositiveSenegal introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It also sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
SenegalSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1982Social Security Code08/25/198008/25/1980PositiveSenegal increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
SenegalSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1984National Interprofessional Collective Agreement10/16/198210/16/1982PositiveSenegal introduced paid paternity leave.
SenegalSub-Saharan AfricaPension1991IPRES Internal Regulations05/07/199105/07/1991PositiveSenegal explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
SenegalSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2000Penal Code01/29/199901/29/1999PositiveSenegal enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
SenegalSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2000Penal Code01/29/199901/29/1999PositiveSenegal enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
SenegalSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2021National Interprofessional Collective Agreement12/30/201912/30/2019PositiveSenegal prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
SenegalSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2023Law No. 2022-01 of April 14, 2022 on the status of refugees and stateless persons04/14/202204/14/2022PositiveSenegal prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
SenegalSub-Saharan AfricaPay2023Decree relating to the work of pregnant women No. 2021-146911/03/202111/16/2021PositiveSenegal removed restrictions on women’s employment in industrial jobs.
SerbiaEurope & Central AsiaPension1998Labor Code of 199606/19/199606/19/1996PositiveSerbia equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
SerbiaEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2003Labor Code of 199612/12/200112/12/2001PositiveSerbia introduced paid paternity leave. It also introduced paid parental leave.
SerbiaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2003Labor Law12/12/200112/12/2001PositiveSerbia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
SerbiaEurope & Central AsiaPension2004Law on Pension and Disability Insurance04/01/200304/01/2003PositiveSerbia no longer establishes an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
SerbiaEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2006Labor Law03/15/200503/23/2005PositiveSerbia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
SerbiaEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2007Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence01/01/200601/09/2006PositiveSerbia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
SerbiaEurope & Central AsiaPay2010Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination03/26/200903/26/2009PositiveSerbia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
SerbiaEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2011Gender Equality Law03/26/200903/26/2009PositiveSerbia introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
SerbiaEurope & Central AsiaPension2016Law on Pension and Disability Insurance01/01/201501/01/2015NegativeSerbia set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
SeychellesSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1972Law No. 70-459 of 1970 amended Civil Code06/04/197006/04/1970PositiveSeychelles allowed women to be head of household.
SeychellesSub-Saharan AfricaPension1972National Provident Fund Act03/29/197103/29/1971PositiveThe Seychelles introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
SeychellesSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1977Civil Code of Seychelles Act01/01/197601/01/1976PositiveSeychelles introduced a Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
SeychellesSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1995Employment (Conditions of Employment) (Amendment) Regulations, 201804/03/199504/03/1995PositiveThe Seychelles increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
SeychellesSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1996Employment Act 04/03/199504/03/1995PositiveThe Seychelles prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
SeychellesSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1996Employment Act 02/28/199502/28/1995PositiveThe Seychelles prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
SeychellesSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2001Family Violence (Protection of Victims) Act, 200003/23/200005/01/2000PositiveSeychelles enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
SeychellesSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2017Employment (Conditions of Employment) (Amendment) Regulations, 201805/28/201506/01/2015PositiveThe Seychelles introduced paid paternity leave.
Sierra LeoneSub-Saharan AfricaPension2003The National Social Security and Insurance Trust Act08/09/200108/09/2001PositiveSierra Leone introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It also sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Sierra LeoneSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2009The Devolution of Estates Act06/14/200707/26/2007PositiveSierra Leone equalized inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
Sierra LeoneSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2009The Domestic Violence Act, 200707/26/200707/26/2007PositiveSierra Leone enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Sierra LeoneSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2010The Registration of Customary Marriage and Divorce Act01/23/2009#N/APositiveSierra Leone granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
Sierra LeoneSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2010The Registration of Customary Marriage and Divorce Act01/23/200906/14/2009PositiveSierra Leone introduced the Registration of Customary Marriage and Divorce Act allowing a woman to sing a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
Sierra LeoneSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2010The Registration of Customary Marriage and Divorce Act01/23/200906/14/2009PositiveSierra Leone allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
Sierra LeoneSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2021The Sexual Offences Act, 201909/19/201911/04/2019PositiveSierra Leone adopted legislation on sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
Sierra LeoneSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2022Directives on Provision of Financial Services on a Non-Discriminatory Basis of August 5, 202108/12/2021#N/APositiveSierra Leone made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
SingaporeEast Asia & PacificMobility1983Women’s Charter06/01/198106/01/1981PositiveSingapore allowed women to choose where to live in the same way as men.
SingaporeEast Asia & PacificMarriage1988Women’s Charter03/30/198703/30/1987PositiveSingapore enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
SingaporeEast Asia & PacificPay1990Employment (Amendment) Act 198808/16/198808/26/1988PositiveSingapore lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
SingaporeEast Asia & PacificPay1997Employment (Amendment) Act 199511/18/199503/01/1996PositiveSingapore eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining.
SingaporeEast Asia & PacificAssets1998Women’s Charter08/27/199605/01/1997PositiveSingapore recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
SingaporeEast Asia & PacificMarriage2005Women’s Charter02/29/200404/14/2003PositiveSingapore allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as a man.
SingaporeEast Asia & PacificParenthood2010Children Development Co-Savings Act (Chapter 38A)10/29/200810/31/2008PositiveSingapore increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
SingaporeEast Asia & PacificParenthood2015Employment, Parental Leave and Other Measures Act 201312/04/201304/01/2014PositiveSingapore introduced paid parental leave. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
SingaporeEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2015Protection from Harassment Act04/11/201411/15/2014PositiveSingapore enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDParenthood1991Law No. 382/1990 Act on Parental Allowance 01/10/199001/10/1990PositiveThe Slovak Republic introduced paid parental leave.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDParenthood1994Law No. 311/2001 Labor Code09/28/199209/28/1992PositiveThe Slovak Republic prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDPension2003Law No. 311/2001 Labor Code07/02/200108/08/2001NegativeThe Slovak Republic set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDWorkplace2003Law No. 311/2001 Labor Code07/02/200104/01/2002PositiveThe Slovak Republic prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2005Law No. 365/2004 Anti-Discrimination Act05/20/200405/20/2004PositiveSlovak Republic introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDPay2005Law No. 311/2001 Labor Code06/01/200305/01/2004PositiveSlovak Republic eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining. It also lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDPension2005Law No. 461/2003 on Social Insurance 11/27/200311/27/2003PositiveSlovak Republic no longer establishes an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDMarriage2007Law No. 300/2005 Criminal Code07/02/200501/01/2006PositiveSlovak Republic enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDPension2009Law No. 461/2003 on Social Insurance 11/30/200711/30/2007NegativeSlovak Republic set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDWorkplace2009Law No. 365/2004 Anti-Discrimination Act06/20/200710/15/2008PositiveSlovak Republic enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDPension2011Law No. 461/2003 on Social Insurance 11/27/200301/01/2010PositiveSlovak Republic equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDPay2012Law No. 311/2001 Labor Code03/01/201106/06/2011PositiveSlovak Republic allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
Slovak RepublicHigh income: OECDPension2021Law No. 461/2003 on Social Insurance 03/28/201901/01/2020NegativeSlovak Republic established unequal ages for men and women to retire with full and partial pension benefits. The mandatory retirement age for men and women is also now unequal.
SloveniaHigh income: OECDParenthood2003Parental Protection and Family Benefits Act07/10/200308/04/2003PositiveSlovenia introduced paid parental leave.
SloveniaHigh income: OECDPay2003Employment Relationships Act04/24/200201/01/2003PositiveSlovenia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
SloveniaHigh income: OECDPension2003Employment Relationships Act04/24/200205/03/2002PositiveSlovenia no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
SloveniaHigh income: OECDWorkplace2003Employment Relationships Act04/24/200201/01/2003PositiveSlovenia prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
SloveniaHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2005Principle of Equal Treatment Act 04/30/200405/06/2004PositiveSlovenia introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
SloveniaHigh income: OECDParenthood2005Parental Protection and Family Benefits Act07/10/200308/04/2003PositiveSlovenia introduced paid paternity leave.
SloveniaHigh income: OECDMarriage2009Domestic Violence Prevention Act02/15/200803/01/2008PositiveSlovenia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
SloveniaHigh income: OECDPension2019Pension and Disability Insurance Act05/03/201905/03/2019PositiveSlovenia equalized the age (60 years) at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
SloveniaHigh income: OECDPension2021Pension and Disability Insurance Act02/04/201201/01/2020PositiveSlovenia equalized the ages (65 years) at which men and women can retire with full pension benefits.
Solomon IslandsEast Asia & PacificPension1974Retirement and Re-employment Act01/01/197301/01/1973PositiveSolomon Islands introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Solomon IslandsEast Asia & PacificMarriage2016Family Protection Act 201408/27/201404/01/2016PositiveSolomon Islands enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
SomaliaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1974Labor Code10/18/197210/21/1972PositiveSomalia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
SomaliaSub-Saharan AfricaPay1974Labor Code10/18/197210/21/1972PositiveSomalia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
SomaliaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1974Labor Code10/18/197210/21/1972PositiveSomalia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaPay1984Basic Conditions of Employment Act12/31/198312/31/1983PositiveSouth Africa lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1986Matrimonial Property Act07/03/198411/01/1984PositiveSouth Africa granted spouses equal administrative authority over assets during marriage and recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1989Intestate Succession Act09/30/198703/18/1988PositiveSouth Africa's Intestate Succession Act equalized inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1993Domicile Act03/03/199203/11/1992PositiveSouth Africa enacted the Domicile Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1995Matrimonial Property Act09/24/199310/06/1993PositiveSouth Africa granted spouses equal rights to immovable property.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship1995Matrimonial Property Act10/06/199312/01/1993PositiveSouth Africa enacted the General Law Fourth Amendment abolishing the Legal Capacity of Married Persons Act abolishing the marital power provision to allow a woman to sing a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage1995Matrimonial Property Act09/24/199310/06/1993PositiveSouth Africa allowed women to be head of household.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1995General Law Fourth Amendment Act10/06/199312/01/1993PositiveSouth Africa allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1997Labor Relations Act12/13/199512/13/1995PositiveSouth Africa prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaPay1997 Mine Health and Safety Act No. 29 of 199606/14/199606/14/1996PositiveSouth Africa eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2000Employment Equity Amendment Act10/19/199812/01/1999PositiveSouth Africa prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2001The Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act of 2000 02/02/200009/01/2000PositiveSouth Africa introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2001Domestic Violence Act11/20/199812/15/1999PositiveSouth Africa enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1999Basic Conditions of Employment Act12/05/199703/21/1998PositiveSouth Africa increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2013Protection from Harassment Act12/06/201104/27/2013PositiveSouth Africa enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2015Employment Equity Amendment Act01/16/201401/16/2014PositiveSouth Africa mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2015Employment Equity Amendment Act01/16/201408/01/2014PositiveSouth Africa enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
South SudanSub-Saharan AfricaPension1991Social Insurance Act of 199012/31/199012/31/1990PositiveSouth Sudan introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
South SudanSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1998Labour Act 199701/01/199701/01/1997PositiveSouth Sudan prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
South SudanSub-Saharan AfricaPension2009Social Insurance Act of 199012/31/200812/31/2008PositiveSouth Sudan equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
South SudanSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2010The Child Act 10/13/200802/10/2009PositiveSouth Sudan equalized inheritance rights for sons and daughters.
South SudanSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2010The Penal Code Act, 200808/22/200802/10/2009PositiveSouth Sudan enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
South SudanSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2013Passports and Immigration Act, 201107/07/201107/07/2011PositiveSouth Sudan introduced a new Passport and Immigration Act which no longer establishes differences in the application procedures for a married woman when applying for a passport.
South SudanSub-Saharan AfricaPension2014Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 201107/07/201107/09/2011NegativeSouth Sudan set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also no longer explicitly accounts for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
South SudanSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2019Labor Act, 201710/24/201710/24/2017PositiveSouth Sudan introduced 10 days of paid paternity leave.
South SudanSub-Saharan AfricaPay2019Labor Act, 201710/24/201710/24/2017PositiveSouth Sudan lifted restrictions on women’s ability to work at night, underground, underwater and in jobs deemed dangerous. It also mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
South SudanSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2019Labor Act, 201710/24/201712/12/2017PositiveSouth Sudan prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
SpainHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship1976Royal Decree of July 24, 1889 by which the Civil Code is published.05/02/197505/02/1975PositiveSpain amended its Civil Code allowing a woman to sing a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account without her husband's consent.
SpainHigh income: OECDMarriage1976Royal Decree of July 24, 1889 by which the Civil Code is published.05/02/197505/02/1975PositiveSpain no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
SpainHigh income: OECDPension1976Royal Legislative Decree 8/2015, of October 30, which approves the revised text of the General Law on Social Security.07/20/197407/20/1974PositiveSpain explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
SpainHigh income: OECDWorkplace1976Law No. 14-1975 of May 2, on reform of certain articles of the Civil Code and the Code of Commerce on the legal affiliation of married women and the rights and duties of spouses05/02/197505/25/1975PositiveSpain allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
SpainHigh income: OECDParenthood1977Labor Relations Law of 197604/08/197604/22/1976PositiveSpain increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
SpainHigh income: OECDMobility1979Royal Decree 896/2003, of July 11, which regulates the issuance of the ordinary passport and determines its characteristics.09/23/197712/11/1977PositiveSpain enacted new passport law which no longer requires a married woman her husband's consent when applying for a passport.
SpainHigh income: OECDWorkplace1981Law No. 8 of 1980, Workers' Statute Law03/10/198003/15/1980PositiveSpain prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
SpainHigh income: OECDAssets1983Royal Decree of July 24, 1889 by which the Civil Code is published.07/07/198107/20/1981PositiveSpain granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
SpainHigh income: OECDMarriage1983Royal Decree of July 24, 1889 by which the Civil Code is published.07/07/198107/20/1981PositiveSpain legalized divorce, equally granting the right to both spouses. There is no waiting period before remarriage for either spouse.
SpainHigh income: OECDMobility1983Royal Decree of July 24, 1889 by which the Civil Code is published.07/07/198107/20/1981PositiveSpain reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
SpainHigh income: OECDPay1995Royal Legislative Decree 8/2015, of October 30, which approves the revised text of the General Law on Social Security.05/19/199405/19/1994PositiveSpain mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
SpainHigh income: OECDParenthood1996Royal Legislative Decree 1/1995, of March 24, approving the revised text of the Workers' Statute Law03/24/199505/01/1995PositiveSpain prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
SpainHigh income: OECDMarriage1997ORGANIC Law 1/2004, of December 28, of Integral Protection Measures against Gender Violence.11/23/199505/25/1996PositiveSpain enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
SpainHigh income: OECDPay1997ORGANIC Law 10/1995, of November 23, of the Penal Code.11/08/199502/10/1996PositiveSpain allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men. It also removed restrictions on women's employment in industrial undertakings.
SpainHigh income: OECDWorkplace1997ORGANIC Law 10/1995, of November 23, of the Penal Code.11/23/199505/24/1996PositiveSpain enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
SpainHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2008Organic Law No. 3/2007 on the effective equality of women and men03/23/200703/24/2007PositiveSpain's Equality of Women and Men Law made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
SpainHigh income: OECDParenthood2022Royal Decree-Law No. 6/2019 on urgent measures to guarantee of equal treatment and opportunities between women and men in employment and occupation03/01/201901/01/2021PositiveSpain introduced 16 weeks of paid parental leave as an individual entitlement for fathers.
Sri LankaSouth AsiaWorkplace1997Penal Code10/31/199510/31/1995PositiveSri Lanka enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Sri LankaSouth AsiaMarriage2007Prevention of Domestic Violence Act No. 34 of 200510/03/200510/07/2005PositiveSri Lanka enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
St. Kitts and NevisLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1974The Divorce Act 05/23/197305/23/1973PositiveSt. Kitts and Nevis allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
St. Kitts and NevisLatin America & CaribbeanPension1979Social Security (Benefits) Regulations 197801/10/197801/10/1978PositiveSt. Kitts and Nevis explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
St. Kitts and NevisLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1980Social Security (Benefits) Regulations 197801/10/197801/10/1978PositiveSt. Kitts and Nevis began administering maternity benefits through its social insurance system.
St. Kitts and NevisLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1988Protection of Employment Act 198606/30/198606/30/1986PositiveSt. Kitts and Nevis prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
St. Kitts and NevisLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2001Domestic Violence Act01/11/200004/03/2004PositiveSt. Kitts and Nevis enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
St. LuciaLatin America & CaribbeanPension1972National Insurance Corporation Act and National Insurance Regulation10/31/197010/31/1970PositiveSt. Lucia introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
St. LuciaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1981National Insurance Act, 197812/31/197804/30/1979PositiveSt. Lucia introduced a social security system that provides maternity benefits.
St. LuciaLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1991The Civil Code 12/30/198912/30/1989PositiveSt. Lucia granted spouses equal administrative authority over assets during the marriage. It also granted spouses equal rights to immovable property.
St. LuciaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1991The Civil Code 12/30/198912/30/1989PositiveSt. Lucia no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
St. LuciaLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1991The Civil Code 12/28/198912/28/1989PositiveSt. Lucia reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
St. LuciaLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1996Domestic Violence (Summary Proceedings) Act04/20/199504/20/1995PositiveSt. Lucia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
St. LuciaLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2001Equality of Opportunity and Treatment in Employment and Occupation Act03/07/200004/01/2000PositiveSt. Lucia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
St. LuciaLatin America & CaribbeanPension2001Equality of Opportunity and Treatment in Employment and Occupation Act03/07/200004/01/2000PositiveSt. Lucia explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
St. LuciaLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2001Equality of Opportunity and Treatment in Employment and Occupation Act12/31/200104/01/2000PositiveSt. Lucia prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
St. LuciaLatin America & CaribbeanPay2008The Labour Code No. 37 of 200611/16/200611/16/2006PositiveSt. Lucia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
St. Vincent and the GrenadinesLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1974Matrimonial Causes Act05/23/197305/23/1973PositiveSt. Vincent and the Grenadines allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
St. Vincent and the GrenadinesLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1991Matrimonial Causes Act12/29/198912/29/1989PositiveSt. Vincent and the Grenadines recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
St. Vincent and the GrenadinesLatin America & CaribbeanPension1996National Insurance (Benefits) Regulations08/23/199408/23/1994PositiveSt. Vincent and the Grenadines explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
St. Vincent and the GrenadinesLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1997Domestic Violence Act 201510/17/199510/17/1995PositiveSt. Vincent and the Grenadines enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
St. Vincent and the GrenadinesLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2005Protection of Employment Act08/21/200308/21/2003PositiveSt. Vincent and the Grenadines prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
SudanSub-Saharan AfricaPension1991Social Insurance Act of 199006/12/199007/01/1990PositiveSudan introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
SudanSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1998Labour Act 199701/01/199701/01/1997PositiveSudan prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
SudanSub-Saharan AfricaPension2009Social Insurance Act of 199012/31/200812/31/2008PositiveSudan equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1982Civil Code03/11/198103/11/1981PositiveSuriname granted spouses equal rights to immovable property.
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship1982Civil Code03/11/198103/11/1981PositiveSuriname introduced new legislation allowing a woman to sing a legally binding contract and open a bank account in the same way as a man without her husband's consent.
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1982Civil Code03/11/198103/11/1981PositiveSuriname allowed women to be head of household and no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1982Civil Code03/11/198103/11/1981PositiveSuriname introduced new legislation allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same ways as a man.
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanPension1982Act on Old-Age Supply Fund of 20 March 198103/20/198103/20/1981PositiveSuriname introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1982Decree No. C-11 (sb 1981, No. 23)03/11/198103/11/1981PositiveSuriname allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanPay1985Decree núm. E-41, September 12, 198309/12/198309/12/1983PositiveSuriname lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2010Combating Domestic Violence Act 06/02/200906/20/2009PositiveSuriname enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanPension2016General Pensions Law 2014 (No. 113 of 2014).09/30/201409/30/2014NegativeSuriname no longer explicitly accounts for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2020Family Employment Protection Act (Maternity Protection Act)06/10/201909/10/2019PositiveSuriname prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2020Family Employment Protection Act (Maternity Protection Act)06/10/201909/10/2019PositiveSuriname prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2021Family Employment Protection Act (Maternity Protection Act)06/10/201909/10/2019PositiveSuriname introduced 16 weeks of paid maternity leave and 8 days of paid paternity leave.
SwedenHigh income: OECDParenthood1974General Working Hours Act11/16/197311/16/1973PositiveSweden introduced paid parental leave.
SwedenHigh income: OECDParenthood1981Social Insurance Act01/01/198001/01/1980PositiveSweden introduced paid paternity leave.
SwedenHigh income: OECDWorkplace1981Discrimination Act12/17/197907/01/1980PositiveSweden prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
SwedenHigh income: OECDMarriage1990Penal Code 07/01/198807/01/1988PositiveSweden enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
SwedenHigh income: OECDParenthood1992Equal Opportunities Act05/30/199106/07/1991PositiveSweden prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
SwedenHigh income: OECDPay1992Equal Opportunities Act05/23/199101/01/1992PositiveSweden mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
SwedenHigh income: OECDPension2000Act on Income-based Old-Age Pensions06/11/199806/11/1998PositiveSweden explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
SwedenHigh income: OECDWorkplace2007Discrimination Act06/09/200507/01/2005PositiveSweden enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
SwedenHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship2014Discrimination Act06/20/201212/21/2012PositiveSweden's Discrimination Act made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDAssets1986Swiss Civil Code (Civil status, marriage, divorce, Child rights, duty to provide support to relatives, Homesteads, guardianship, marriage brokerage)10/05/198401/01/1988PositiveSwitzerland granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDMarriage1986Swiss Civil Code (Civil status, marriage, divorce, Child rights, duty to provide support to relatives, Homesteads, guardianship, marriage brokerage)10/05/198401/01/1988PositiveSwitzerland allowed women to be head of household.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDMobility1986Swiss Civil Code (Civil status, marriage, divorce, Child rights, duty to provide support to relatives, Homesteads, guardianship, marriage brokerage)10/05/198401/01/1988PositiveSwitzerland amended its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDWorkplace1986Swiss Civil Code10/05/198401/01/1988PositiveSwitzerland allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDParenthood1989Law No. 97-013 on the Family Code03/18/198801/01/1989PositiveSwitzerland prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDPay1996Federal Act on Gender Equality 03/24/199506/30/1996PositiveSwitzerland mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDPension1996Federal Act on Gender Equality 10/06/199412/31/1996PositiveSwitzerland explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDWorkplace1996Federal Act on Gender Equality 03/24/199506/30/1996PositiveSwitzerland enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDWorkplace1997Federal Act on Gender Equality 03/24/199506/30/1996PositiveSwitzerland prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDMarriage2000Swiss Civil Code (Civil status, marriage, divorce, Child rights, duty to provide support to relatives, Homesteads, guardianship, marriage brokerage)06/26/199801/01/2000PositiveSwitzerland gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDParenthood2006Federal Act on Allowances for Loss of Earnings in the Event of Service and Maternity Leave 10/03/200307/01/2003PositiveSwitzerland's government began administering maternity benefits. It also increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDMarriage2008Protection Against Violence Act06/19/200604/01/2007PositiveSwitzerland enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
SwitzerlandHigh income: OECDParenthood2022Law No. 97-013 on the Family Code12/19/201901/01/2021PositiveSwitzerland introduced 2 weeks of paid paternity leave.
Syrian Arab RepublicMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2003Legislative Decree No. 35/2002 amending Labor Law No. 91 of 195905/13/200205/13/2002PositiveSyrian Arab Republic increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
Syrian Arab RepublicMiddle East & North AfricaPension2003Law 78 of 2001 Amending Social Security Code of 195912/31/200112/31/2001NegativeSyrian Arab Republic set unequal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
Syrian Arab RepublicMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2008Law No. 4 of 2017 amending a number of articles of Legislative Decree No. 26 of 12-4-2007 on Civil Status04/12/2007#N/APositiveSyrian Arab Republic allowed women to be head of household.
Syrian Arab RepublicMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2011Labor Law No. 17/201004/12/201004/12/2010PositiveSyrian Arab Republic prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Syrian Arab RepublicMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2011Labor Law No. 17/201004/12/201004/12/2010PositiveSyrian Arab Republic prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Syrian Arab RepublicMiddle East & North AfricaMobility2020Law No. 4 of 2019 amending some articles of the Personal Status Law promulgated by Legislative Decree No. 59 of 1953 and its amendments06/27/201906/28/2019PositiveThe Syrian Arab Republic allowed a married woman to leave the home without her husband's permission.
Syrian Arab RepublicMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2022Law No. 20 of 2019 amending the Personal Status Law No. 59 of 195306/27/201906/28/2019PositiveSyria no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
Taiwan, ChinaEast Asia & PacificPay1986Labor Standards Act07/30/198408/01/1984PositiveTaiwan, China mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
Taiwan, ChinaEast Asia & PacificAssets1987Civil Code06/03/198506/03/1985PositiveTaiwan, China recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
Taiwan, ChinaEast Asia & PacificPay1997Labor Standards Act06/22/199607/01/1996PositiveTaiwan, China lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
Taiwan, ChinaEast Asia & PacificMarriage2000Domestic Violence Prevention Act06/24/199806/24/1998PositiveTaiwan, China enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Taiwan, ChinaEast Asia & PacificMobility2000Civil Code06/17/199806/17/1998PositiveTaiwan, China reformed its Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
Taiwan, ChinaEast Asia & PacificParenthood2003Act of Gender Equality in Employment01/16/200203/08/2002PositiveTaiwan, China prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
Taiwan, ChinaEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2003Act of Gender Equality in Employment01/16/200203/08/2002PositiveTaiwan, China prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Taiwan, ChinaEast Asia & PacificAssets2004Civil Code06/26/200206/26/2002PositiveTaiwan, China repealed provisions giving the husband sole administrative authority over marital property, granting spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
Taiwan, ChinaEast Asia & PacificParenthood2010Act of Gender Equality in Employment04/22/200905/01/2009PositiveTaiwan, China increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also introduced paid parental leave.
Taiwan, ChinaEast Asia & PacificPay2015Occupational Safety and Health Act (2013.07.03 Amended )07/03/201307/03/2013PositiveTaiwan, China eliminated all restrictions on women's employment by limiting them to pregnant and nursing women. It also allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men.
TajikistanEurope & Central AsiaPension1989Amendments to the Law on the Fundamentals of Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Labor02/04/198802/04/1988NegativeTajikistan set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
TajikistanEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1973Law on the Fundamentals of Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Labor07/15/197001/01/1971PositiveTajikistan prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
TajikistanEurope & Central AsiaPension1993Law on Pensions Provisions of the Republic of Tajikistan12/31/199112/31/1991PositiveTajikistan no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
TajikistanEurope & Central AsiaPension1995Law on Pensions Provisions of the Republic of Tajikistan06/25/199301/01/1994PositiveTajikistan explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
TajikistanEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1998Labor Code of the Republic of Tajikistan05/15/199705/15/1997PositiveTajikistan introduced paid parental leave.
TajikistanEurope & Central AsiaPay1998Labor Code of the Republic of Tajikistan05/15/199705/15/1997PositiveTajikistan mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
TajikistanEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1998Labor Code of the Republic of Tajikistan05/15/199705/15/1997PositiveTajikistan prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
TajikistanEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2006Law on State Guarantees of Equal Rights for Men and Women and Equal Opportunities for their Implementation03/01/200503/01/2005PositiveTajikistan introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
TajikistanEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2014Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence03/19/201303/28/2013PositiveTajikistan enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
TajikistanEurope & Central AsiaPay2018Labor Code of the Republic of Tajikistan07/23/201607/23/2016PositiveTajikistan lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
TanzaniaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1985Civil Appeal: Bi Hawa Mohamed v. Ally Sefu11/29/198311/29/1983PositiveTanzania recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
TanzaniaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1999Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act 199804/21/199807/01/1998PositiveTanzania enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
TanzaniaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2005Employment and Labor Relations Act 200406/04/200406/29/2004PositiveTanzania prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
TanzaniaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2006Employment and Labor Relations Act 200406/04/200406/29/2004PositiveTanzania began administering maternity benefits through its social security system. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
TanzaniaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2006Employment and Labor Relations Act 200406/04/200406/29/2004PositiveTanzania mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
TanzaniaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2006Employment and Labor Relations Act 200401/23/200501/23/2005PositiveTanzania prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ThailandEast Asia & PacificParenthood1999Labor Protection Act B.E. 254102/12/199808/11/1998PositiveThailand prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
ThailandEast Asia & PacificWorkplace1999Labor Protection Act (No. 7) B.E. 2562 (2019)02/28/199802/28/1998PositiveThailand prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ThailandEast Asia & PacificPension2000Social Security Act B.E. 2533 (1990)03/31/199903/31/1999PositiveThailand introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
ThailandEast Asia & PacificMarriage2009Domestic Violence Victim Protection Act B.E. 2550 (2007)09/13/200709/13/2007PositiveThailand enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence. Thailand allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
ThailandEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2009Labor Protection Act (No. 7) B.E. 2562 (2019)02/15/200805/28/2009PositiveThailand enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
ThailandEast Asia & PacificPay2020Labor Protection Act (No. 7) B.E. 2562 (2019)04/05/201905/05/2019PositiveThailand introduced new legislation that mandates equal remuneration for women and men who perform work of equal value.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificPension1978Decree-Law No. 17/2017 Old Age Pension11/26/197711/26/1977PositiveTimor-Leste introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificParenthood1999LABOUR CODE OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF TIMOR LESTE UNTAET/REG/2002/510/03/199710/03/1997PositiveTimor-Leste prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2003LABOUR CODE OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF TIMOR LESTE UNTAET/REG/2002/505/01/200205/01/2002PositiveTimor-Leste prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificEntrepreneurship2005Commercial Companies Act03/02/200403/02/2004PositiveTimor-Leste enacted the Commercial Companies Act allowing a woman to register a business in the same way as a man without her husband 's consent.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificMarriage2012Law No. 7/2010 Against Domestic Violence05/03/201007/08/2010PositiveTimor-Leste enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificAssets2013Civil Code09/13/201109/13/2011PositiveTimor-Leste's Civil Code gave spouses equal rights and duties, granting them equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificEntrepreneurship2013Civil Code09/13/201109/13/2011PositiveTimor-Leste introduced a new Civil Code allowing a woman to sign a legally binding contract and open a bank account in the same way as a man without her husband's consent.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificMarriage2013Civil Code09/13/201109/13/2011PositiveTimor-Leste allowed women to be head of household. Timor-Leste allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificMobility2013Civil Code09/13/201109/13/2011PositiveTimor-Leste enacted a new Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificParenthood2013LABOUR CODE OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF TIMOR LESTE UNTAET/REG/2002/502/21/201206/20/2012PositiveTimor-Leste introduced paid paternity leave.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificPay2013Labor Law02/02/201206/21/2012PositiveTimor-Leste mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificParenthood2018Decree-Law No. 12/201705/24/201706/23/2017PositiveTimor-Leste introduced a social security system that administers maternity benefits.
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificPension2019Decree-Law No. 18/2012 - Subsidies for Motherhood Support05/24/201706/23/2017PositiveTimor-Leste explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaPension1974Social Security Code 201111/12/197311/12/1973PositiveTogo introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1981Personal and Family Code01/31/198001/31/1980PositiveTogo's Personal and Family Code granted spouses equal rights to immovable property and equal administrative authority over assets during marriage. It also equalized inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship1981Personal and Family Code01/31/198001/31/1980PositiveTogo enacted a Family Code allowing a woman to sign a legally binding contract, register a business and open a bank account in the same way as a man.
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2008Labor Code12/13/200612/13/2006PositiveTogo prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaPay2008Labor Code12/13/200612/13/2006PositiveTogo mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2008Labor Code10/13/200610/13/2006PositiveTogo prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaPay2012Order No. 020/MTESS/DGTLS of July 30, 2010 establishing the nature of work prohibited to pregnant women (Article 147 of the Labor Code)07/30/201007/30/2010PositiveTogo eliminated restrictions on women’s ability to work in certain industries by limiting them to pregnant women.
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaPension2012Order No. 020/MTESS/DGTLS of July 30, 2010 establishing the nature of work prohibited to pregnant women (Article 147 of the Labor Code)07/30/201007/30/2010PositiveTogo explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2014Personal and Family Code07/07/201207/07/2012PositiveTogo introduced a new Family Law allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2014Personal and Family Code (Amendment) 2014 07/06/201207/06/2012PositiveTogo allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2016Personal and Family Code11/17/201411/17/2014PositiveTogo allowed women to be head of household.
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2022Labor Code06/18/202106/18/2021NegativeTogo introduced new legislation which no longer prohibits the dismissal of pregnant workers.
TongaEast Asia & PacificPension2012National Retirement Benefits Scheme Act 201010/01/201010/01/2010PositiveTonga introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
TongaEast Asia & PacificMarriage2015Family Protection Act 201311/05/201307/01/2014PositiveTonga enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Trinidad and TobagoLatin America & CaribbeanPension1973National Insurance Act11/01/197111/15/1971PositiveTrinidad and Tobago introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
Trinidad and TobagoLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1975Matrimonial Proceedings and Property Act02/21/197202/21/1972PositiveTrinidad and Tobago recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions, including those made by "looking after the home or caring for the family."
Trinidad and TobagoLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1983Succession Act07/30/198107/30/1981PositiveTrinidad and Tobago equalized inheritance rights for male and female surviving spouses.
Trinidad and TobagoLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1984Family Law (Guardianship of Minors, Domicile and Maintenance) Act06/29/198103/01/1983PositiveTrinidad and Tobago introduced a new Family Law allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
Trinidad and TobagoLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1993Domestic Violence Act, 199108/16/199108/23/1991PositiveTrinidad and Tobago enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Trinidad and TobagoLatin America & CaribbeanEntrepreneurship2002Equal Opportunity Act 200010/20/200001/31/2001PositiveTrinidad and Tobago's new legal amendments made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
Trinidad and TobagoLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2002Equal Opportunity Act 200010/20/200001/31/2001PositiveTrinidad and Tobago prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Trinidad and TobagoLatin America & CaribbeanPay2005Occupational Safety and Health Act (Cap. 88:08)01/13/200401/30/2004PositiveTrinidad and Tobago eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night.
Trinidad and TobagoLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2014Maternity Protection Act05/15/201205/31/2012PositiveTrinidad and Tobago increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
TunisiaMiddle East & North AfricaPension1975Decree No. 74-499 on the Old-Age, Invalidity and Survivors' Pension Scheme in the Non-Agricultural Sector04/27/197404/27/1974PositiveTunisia introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
TunisiaMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage1995Personal Status Code07/12/199307/12/1993PositiveTunisia no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
TunisiaMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2019Organic Law No. 2017-58 of 11 August 2017, on the Elimination of Violence against Women 08/15/201702/15/2018PositiveTunisia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
TunisiaMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2019Organic Law No. 2017-58 of 11 August 2017, on the Elimination of Violence against Women 08/11/201708/15/2017PositiveTunisia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
TürkiyeEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1992Turkish Constitutional Court Decision, E 1990 of 30, K 1990 of 31 of November 29, 199011/29/199011/29/1990PositiveTürkiye allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
TürkiyeEurope & Central AsiaAssets2003Turkish Citizenship Law11/22/200112/08/2001PositiveTürkiye recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
TürkiyeEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2003Turkish Citizenship Law11/22/200112/08/2001PositiveTürkiye allowed women to be head of household.
TürkiyeEurope & Central AsiaMobility2003Civil Code11/22/200112/08/2001PositiveTürkiye introduced a new Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
TürkiyeEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2004Labor Act05/22/200306/22/2003PositiveTürkiye prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
TürkiyeEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2004Labor Act05/22/200305/22/2003PositiveTürkiye prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
TürkiyeEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2005Labor Act05/22/200306/10/2003PositiveTürkiye increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
TürkiyeEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2006Penal Code09/26/200410/02/2004PositiveTürkiye enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
TürkiyeEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2007Law to Protect Family and Prevent Violence Against Women09/26/200404/01/2005PositiveTürkiye enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
TürkiyeEurope & Central AsiaPay2004Labor Act05/22/200306/10/2003PositiveTürkiye allowed women to work in jobs deemed dangerous in the same way as men. It also mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
TürkiyeEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2016Labor Act04/04/201504/23/2015PositiveTürkiye introduced paid paternity leave.
UgandaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2007Employment Act05/24/200608/07/2006PositiveUganda mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value. It also eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining.
UgandaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2007Employment Act05/24/200605/24/2006PositiveUganda prohibited gender discrimination in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
UgandaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2008The Employment Act, 200606/08/200608/07/2006PositiveUganda prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It also introduced paid paternity leave.
UgandaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2011The Domestic Violence Act 201003/17/201004/09/2010PositiveUganda enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
UgandaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2020Passport Application Procedures 202006/01/201806/01/2018PositiveUganda made international travel easier for women by allowing them to apply for a passport in the same way as men, with no need to provide additional information.
UgandaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets2023Succession (Amendment) Act, 202204/10/202204/10/2022PositiveUganda equalized inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
UgandaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility 2023Succession (Amendment) Act, 202204/10/202204/10/2022PositiveUganda granted women the same rights to choose where to live as men.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaPension1972Labor Code of Ukraine07/15/197001/01/1971NegativeUkraine set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1972Labor Code of Ukraine07/15/197001/01/1971PositiveUkraine prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1992Labor Code of Ukraine03/20/199101/01/1992PositiveUkraine prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaPension1993Law of Ukraine on Compulsory State Pension Insurance11/05/199101/01/1992PositiveUkraine explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1995Labor Code of Ukraine03/20/199101/01/1992PositiveUkraine introduced paid parental leave.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaPension1993Labor Code of Ukraine11/05/199101/01/1992PositiveUkraine no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace2007Law of Ukraine on Equal Rights and Opportunities for Women and Men09/08/200501/01/2006PositiveUkraine enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaMarriage2010Law of Ukraine on Prevention and Counteraction to Domestic Violence09/25/200801/01/2009PositiveUkraine enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2014Law OF UKRAINE On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Concerning the Prevention and Counteraction of Discrimination09/06/201209/06/2012PositiveUkraine introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2015Law of Ukraine on State Assistance to Families with Children03/27/201404/01/2014NegativeUkraine abolished paid parental leave.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaPension2019Law of Ukraine on Compulsory State Pension Insurance10/03/201710/03/2017PositiveUkraine equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaParenthood2022Labor Code of Ukraine04/15/202105/09/2021PositiveUkraine introduced 14 days of paid paternity leave.
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaPension2022Law of Ukraine on Compulsory State Pension Insurance07/08/201104/01/2021PositiveUkraine equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaPension2000Law on Pensions and Social Security02/16/199902/16/1999PositiveThe United Arab Emirates introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaMobility2019The matter of nationality and passports, The matter of amending some provisions of Federal Law No. 17 of 1972 AD Federal Decree-Law No. 16 of 2017 AD09/28/201909/29/2017PositiveThe United Arab Emirates made international travel easier for women by allowing a married woman to apply for a passport without the written consent of her husband.
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaEntrepreneurship2020Central Bank Circular Announcement09/01/201909/01/2019PositiveThe United Arab Emirates made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2020Federal Domestic Violence Law No. 10 of 201908/29/201901/29/2020PositiveThe United Arab Emirates began allowing women to be head of household and adopted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2020Federal Decree Law No. 6 of 2019 Amending Some Provisions of Federal Labor Law No. 8 of 198008/29/201908/29/2019PositiveThe United Arab Emirates prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaPay2020Federal Decree Law No. 6 of 2019 Amending Some Provisions of Federal Labor Law No. 8 of 198008/29/201908/29/2019PositiveThe United Arab Emirates lifted restrictions on women’s ability to work at night and in jobs deemed dangerous. It also eliminated restrictions on women’s employment in the mining, manufacturing, agriculture and energy industries.
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2020Federal Decree Law No. 6 of 2019 Amending Some Provisions of Federal Labor Law No. 8 of 198008/29/201908/29/2019PositiveThe United Arab Emirates improved the protection of women at work by prohibiting discrimination based on gender in employment. It enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment.
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaMarriage2021Federal Decree No. 5 of 202008/25/202008/26/2020PositiveThe United Arab Emirates no longer requires a married woman to obey her husband.
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaMobility2021Federal Decree No. 5 of 202008/25/202008/26/2020PositiveThe United Arab Emirates allowed women to choose where to live and travel abroad in the same way as men. The United Arab Emirates also allowed a married woman to leave the home without her husband's permission.
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2021Federal Decree-Law Regarding the Regulation of Employment Relationship08/27/202009/27/2020PositiveThe United Arab Emirates introduced 5 days of paid parental leave as an individual entitlement for each parent. Fathers now have paid leave to care for their newborn babies.
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaPay2021Federal Decree-Law Regarding the Regulation of Employment Relationship08/25/202009/25/2020PositiveThe United Arab Emirates mandated equal remuneration for men and women who perform work of equal value.
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2021Federal Decree No. 5 of 202008/25/202008/25/2020PositiveThe United Arab Emirates allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDAssets1974Matrimonial Causes Act 197305/23/197305/23/1973PositiveThe United Kingdom recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDMarriage1974Matrimonial Causes Act 197305/23/197305/23/1973PositiveThe United Kingdom reformed the Matrimonial Causes Act, allowing women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDMobility1975Domicile and Matrimonial Proceedings Act 197307/25/1973#N/APositiveThe United Kingdom introduced the Domicile and Matrimonial Proceedings Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDPension1976The Social Security (Credits) Regulations 197504/04/197504/06/1975PositiveThe United Kingdom explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship1977Sex Discrimination Act 197511/12/197511/12/1975PositiveThe United Kingdom's Sex Discrimination Act made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDWorkplace1977Sex Discrimination Act 197511/12/197511/12/1975PositiveThe United Kingdom prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDMobility1982British Nationality Act 198106/03/190506/03/1905PositiveThe United Kingdom introduced new legal amendments which no longer establishes differences in the application procedures for a married woman when applying for a passport.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDParenthood1988Statutory Maternity Pay (General) Regulations 198611/24/198603/15/1987PositiveThe United Kingdom increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDPay1990Employment Relations Act 199911/16/198911/16/1989PositiveThe United Kingdom eliminated restrictions on women's employment in mining and manufacturing.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDPension1997Pensions Act 199507/19/199507/19/1995PositiveThe United Kingdom equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDMarriage1998Family Law Act of 199607/04/199607/04/1996Positive The United Kingdom enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDParenthood2001The Maternity and Parental Leave Regulations 199912/10/199912/15/1999PositiveThe United Kingdom prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDParenthood2004The Paternity and Adoption Leave Regulations 200211/11/200212/08/2002PositiveThe United Kingdom introduced paid paternity leave.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDWorkplace2007Sex Discrimination Act 197509/07/200510/01/2005PositiveThe United Kingdom enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDWorkplace2011Equality Act 201004/08/201010/01/2010PositiveThe United Kingdom enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
United KingdomHigh income: OECDParenthood2016Statutory Shared Parental Pay (General) Regulations 201411/18/201412/01/2014PositiveThe United Kingdom introduced paid parental leave.
United StatesHigh income: OECDEntrepreneurship197615 USC Chapter 41, Subchapter IV: Equal Credit Opportunity10/28/197410/28/1974PositiveUnited States' Equal Credit Opportunity Act made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
United StatesHigh income: OECDParenthood198029 CFR 1604.10 - Employment policies relating to pregnancy and childbirth.10/31/197810/31/1978PositiveUnited States prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
United StatesHigh income: OECDAssets1982New York Domestic Relations Law 236B: Equitable Distribution, Maintenance, Child Support 06/02/190507/19/1980PositiveUnited States recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
United StatesHigh income: OECDWorkplace1982Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29 Labor Subtitle B Regulations Relating to Labor, Chapter XIV - Equal Employment Opportunity Commission part 1604, Guidelines on Discrimination because of Sex § 1604.11 Sexual harassment.11/10/1980#N/APositiveUnited States enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
United StatesHigh income: OECDMarriage1995Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 199409/13/199409/13/1994PositiveUnited States enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
United StatesHigh income: OECDParenthood2019New York Regulations Part 415. Child Care Services04/04/201601/01/2018PositiveNew York State (USA) introduced paid family leave that currently entitles each parent to 70 days of leave for the birth of a child. It will gradually increase to 84 days. Parents receive paid parental leave benefits through their employer’s insurance carriers.
UruguayLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1982Law No. 19.161 - Maternity and Paternity Benefits for Private Sector Workers11/28/198012/09/1980PositiveUruguay began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
UruguayLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1991Law No. 16.045 - Law on Equal Treatment and Opportunities for Both Sexes in the Workplace06/02/198906/02/1989PositiveUruguay prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
UruguayLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1997Law No. 17.514 - Domestic Violence07/12/199507/19/1995PositiveUruguay enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
UruguayLatin America & CaribbeanPension2004Law No. 16.713 - Social Security09/03/199501/01/2003PositiveUruguay equalized the ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits.
UruguayLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2010Law No. 18.345 - Special Licenses with Salary Payment for Private Sector Workers09/11/200809/23/2008PositiveUruguay introduced paid paternity leave.
UruguayLatin America & CaribbeanPension2010Law No. 18.395 - Amendments to Social Security Law No. 16.71309/11/200809/23/2008PositiveUruguay explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
UruguayLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2011Law No. 18.561 - Sexual Harassment09/11/200909/21/2009PositiveUruguay enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
UruguayLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2015Law No. 19.161 - Maternity and Paternity Benefits for Private Sector Workers11/01/201311/15/2013PositiveUruguay increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
UruguayLatin America & CaribbeanPay2019Law No. 19.580 - Gender Based Violence and Against Women12/22/201701/09/2018PositiveUruguay introduced new legislation that mandates equal remuneration for women and men who perform work of equal value.
UzbekistanEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1973Labor Code of the Republic Uzbekistan07/15/197001/01/1971PositiveUzbekistan prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
UzbekistanEurope & Central AsiaPension1989Labor Code of the Republic Uzbekistan02/04/198802/22/1988NegativeUzbekistan set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
UzbekistanEurope & Central AsiaPension1995Law No. 938-XII of 3 September 1993 On State Pensions09/03/199307/01/1994PositiveUzbekistan explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
UzbekistanEurope & Central AsiaParenthood1997Labor Code of the Republic Uzbekistan12/21/199504/01/1996PositiveUzbekistan introduced paid parental leave.
UzbekistanEurope & Central AsiaPay1997Labor Code of the Republic Uzbekistan12/21/199504/01/1996PositiveUzbekistan lifted restrictions on women's ability to work at night.
UzbekistanEurope & Central AsiaPension1997Labor Code of the Republic Uzbekistan12/21/199504/01/1996PositiveUzbekistan no longer establishes a mandatory retirement age for women and men.
UzbekistanEurope & Central AsiaWorkplace1997Labor Code of the Republic Uzbekistan12/21/199512/21/1995PositiveUzbekistan prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
UzbekistanEurope & Central AsiaPension2012Labor Code of the Republic Uzbekistan12/22/201012/22/2010NegativeUzbekistan set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
UzbekistanEurope & Central AsiaPension2020Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. 4235 of 7 March 201903/07/201903/07/2019PositiveUzbekistan equalized the mandatory retirement age (60 years) for women and men.
UzbekistanEurope & Central AsiaEntrepreneurship2021Resolution about measures for implementation of system of registration and issue of identification ID cards in the Republic of Uzbekistan09/02/201909/02/2019PositiveUzbekistan made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination when providing financial services.
VanuatuEast Asia & PacificMarriage1974Matrimonial Causes Act 197305/23/197305/23/1973PositiveVanuatu allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
VanuatuEast Asia & PacificEntrepreneurship1983Penal Code08/07/198108/07/1981PositiveVanuatu's Penal Code made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
VanuatuEast Asia & PacificPension1989Vanuatu National Provident Fund (Withdrawal Of Credits And Special Death Benefit) Regulations10/13/198608/10/1987PositiveVanuatu introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits.
VanuatuEast Asia & PacificMarriage2010Family Protection Act 200812/22/200803/02/2009PositiveVanuatu enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Venezuela, RBLatin America & CaribbeanAssets1984Civil Code07/06/198207/26/1982PositiveVenezuela, RB granted spouses equal administrative authority over assets during the marriage. It also granted spouses equal rights to immovable property.
Venezuela, RBLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage1984Civil Code07/06/198207/26/1982PositiveVenezuela, RB allowed women to obtain a divorce in the same way as men.
Venezuela, RBLatin America & CaribbeanMobility1984Civil Code07/06/198207/26/1982PositiveVenezuela, RB enacted a new Civil Code allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
Venezuela, RBLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1992Labor Law05/01/199105/01/1991PositiveVenezuela, RB prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
Venezuela, RBLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace1992Organic Labor Act of 199011/27/199005/01/1991PositiveVenezuela, RB prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Venezuela, RBLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood1999Labor Law06/10/199706/10/1997PositiveVenezuela, RB increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
Venezuela, RBLatin America & CaribbeanPay2007Decree No. 4447 of April 25, 2006 about the regulation of the Labor Code04/25/200604/28/2006PositiveVenezuela, RB eliminated the ban on women's employment in industrial undertakings at night.
Venezuela, RBLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2000Law on Violence against Women and the Family09/03/199801/01/1999PositiveVenezuela, RB enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
Venezuela, RBLatin America & CaribbeanWorkplace2008Organic Law on the Right of Women to a Life Free of Violence03/19/200704/23/2007PositiveVenezuela, RB enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
Venezuela, RBLatin America & CaribbeanParenthood2009Law for the protection of families, maternity and paternity07/26/200709/20/2007PositiveVenezuela, RB introduced paid paternity leave.
Venezuela, RBLatin America & CaribbeanMarriage2015Civil Code07/16/201307/16/2013PositiveVenezuela, RB gave women the same rights to remarry as men.
VietnamEast Asia & PacificWorkplace1995Penal Code06/23/199401/01/1995PositiveVietnam prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
VietnamEast Asia & PacificParenthood1996Labour Code 199406/23/199401/01/1995PositiveVietnam prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers. It increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks. It also began administering maternity benefits through its social insurance system.
VietnamEast Asia & PacificEntrepreneurship2008The Law on Gender Equality11/29/200607/01/2007PositiveVietnam's Gender Equality Law made access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
VietnamEast Asia & PacificMarriage2009Law on Domestic Violence Prevention and Control No. 02/200711/21/200707/01/2008PositiveVietnam enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
VietnamEast Asia & PacificPay2014Labour Code06/18/201205/01/2013PositiveVietnam mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
VietnamEast Asia & PacificPension2014Labour Code06/18/201205/01/2013NegativeVietnam set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
VietnamEast Asia & PacificWorkplace2014Labour Code06/18/201205/01/2013PositiveVietnam enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
VietnamEast Asia & PacificParenthood2017Labour Code11/20/201401/01/2016PositiveVietnam introduced paid paternity leave.
VietnamEast Asia & PacificPension2017Law on Social Insurance11/20/201401/01/2016PositiveVietnam explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
VietnamEast Asia & PacificPay2021Labour Code11/20/201901/31/2020PositiveVietnam eliminated restrictions on women's employment in jobs deemed dangerous.
VietnamEast Asia & PacificPay2022Circular No.10/2020/TT-BLDTBXH11/12/202001/01/2021PositiveVietnam eliminated all restrictions on women's employment. Women can now work in industrial jobs in the same way as men.
West Bank and GazaMiddle East & North AfricaWorkplace2001Labor Law No. (7) of 200004/30/200004/30/2000PositiveWest Bank and Gaza prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
West Bank and GazaMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2017Social Security Law 201609/29/201611/20/2016PositiveWest Bank and Gaza began administering maternity benefits through its social security system.
West Bank and GazaMiddle East & North AfricaPension2017Social Security Law 201609/29/201611/20/2016PositiveWest Bank and Gaza introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
West Bank and GazaMiddle East & North AfricaParenthood2020Labor Law No. (7) of 200001/28/201901/28/2019NegativeWest Bank and Gaza reversed a previous reform that introduced the 2016 Social Security Law. Now employers are solely liable for paying maternity benefits.
West Bank and GazaMiddle East & North AfricaPension2020Social Security Law 201601/28/201901/28/2019NegativeWest Bank and Gaza reversed a previous reform that introduced the 2016 Social Security Law. There is now no pension system for the private sector.
Yemen, Rep.Middle East & North AfricaPension1996Labor Code03/09/199503/09/1995NegativeThe Republic of Yemen set unequal mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
Yemen, Rep.Middle East & North AfricaWorkplace1996Labor Code03/09/199503/09/1995PositiveThe Republic of Yemen prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
Yemen, Rep.Middle East & North AfricaPension2009Law No. 15 of 2008 amending Law No. 5 of 1995 concerning the Labour Code04/14/200804/14/2008PositiveThe Republic of Yemen equalized the mandatory retirement ages for women and men.
ZambiaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood1984Employment Code Act08/20/198208/20/1982PositiveZambia prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
ZambiaSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1990The Intestate Succession Act05/19/198905/19/1989PositiveZambia equalized inheritance rights for both sons and daughters and male and female surviving spouses.
ZambiaSub-Saharan AfricaPay1992Employment of Young Persons and Children Act12/31/199112/31/1991PositiveZambia eliminated the ban on women's employment in mining and in industrial undertakings at night.
ZambiaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1994Industrial and Labour Relations Act04/30/199304/30/1993PositiveZambia prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ZambiaSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2013Anti-Gender-Based Violence Act 201104/15/201104/15/2011PositiveZambia enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.
ZambiaSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2017The Gender Equity and Equality Act12/23/201507/08/1905PositiveZambia introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
ZambiaSub-Saharan AfricaMobility2017The Gender Equity and Equality Act12/23/201507/08/1905PositiveZambia introduced the Gender Equity and Equality Act allowing a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man.
ZambiaSub-Saharan AfricaPay2017The Gender Equity and Equality Act12/24/201512/24/2015PositiveZambia mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.
ZambiaSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2017The Gender Equity and Equality Act12/23/201512/24/2015PositiveZambia enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment. It adopted criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment. It also enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
ZambiaSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2020Employment Code Act04/11/201904/11/2019PositiveZambia extended the duration of paid maternity leave from 84 to 98 days.
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship1984Legal Age of Majority Act12/10/198212/10/1982PositiveZimbabwe allowed women to sign a legally binding contract, register a business, and sign a contract in the same way as men.
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaMobility1984Legal Age of Majority Act12/10/198212/10/1982PositiveZimbabwe allowed women to choose where to live in the same way as men.
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace1984Legal Age of Majority Act12/10/198212/10/1982PositiveZimbabwe allowed a woman to get a job without permission from her husband.
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1989Matrimonial Causes Act12/11/198712/11/1987PositiveZimbabwe recognized the value of nonmonetary contributions.
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaAssets1993Married Persons Property Act06/14/199106/14/1991PositiveZimbabwe granted spouses equal rights to immovable property.
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaPension1995Pension and Other Benefits Scheme Statutory Instrument No. 393 of 199312/24/199312/24/1993PositiveZimbabwe introduced an old-age pension system that sets equal ages at which women and men can retire with full pension benefits. It does not establish an age at which women and men can retire with partial pension benefits. It also explicitly accounted for periods of absence due to child care in pension benefits.
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaEntrepreneurship2000Prevention of Discrimination Act 01/29/199901/29/1999PositiveZimbabwe introduced new legislation that makes access to credit easier for women by prohibiting gender-based discrimination in financial services.
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2003Labour Relations Amendment Act12/31/200203/07/2003PositiveZimbabwe prohibited the dismissal of pregnant workers.
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2003Labour Act12/31/200203/07/2003PositiveZimbabwe prohibited gender discrimination in employment.
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaParenthood2007Labour Act12/30/200512/30/2005PositiveZimbabwe increased the duration of paid maternity leave to at least 14 weeks.
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaWorkplace2007Labour Act12/30/200512/30/2005PositiveZimbabwe enacted legislation protecting women from sexual harassment in employment and enacted civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment.
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaMarriage2008Domestic Violence Act02/26/200709/25/2007PositiveZimbabwe enacted legislation protecting women from domestic violence.