Accessing Institutions

Accessing institutions explores women’s legal ability to interact with public authorities and the private sector in the same ways as men. Lack of autonomy to interact with government institutions or conduct official transactions may limit a woman’s access to resources and services and restrict her ability to be an entrepreneur or get a job. This topic was expanded this year to provide disaggregated information on 12 different categories of legal ability, highlighting the differences between married and unmarried women. Furthermore, for the first time accessing institutions partially addresses the interaction between customary law and codified law by examining the constitutional treatment of customary law. When customary law is applied—that is, law which is based on the accepted customs or practices of a particular group— it may limit women’s legal capacity, while exempting customary law from constitutional provisions on nondiscrimination can reinforce this inequality.

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VIEWING QUESTIONS

Is there a non-discrimination clause in the constitution? If there is a non-discrimination clause in the constitution, does it explicitly mention gender? Does the constitution guarantee equality before the law? Is customary law recognized as a valid source of law under the constitution? If customary law is a valid source of law, is it considered invalid if it violates constitutional provisions on non-discrimination or equality? Is personal law recognized as a valid source of law under the constitution?
Albania
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
Yes Yes Yes No N/A No
Algeria
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
YesYesYesNoN/A Yes
Angola
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Argentina
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Armenia
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Australia
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/ANoNo N/A No
Austria
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Azerbaijan
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Bangladesh
South AsiaSA
YesYesYesYesYesYes
Belarus
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesNoYesNoN/ANo
Belgium
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Benin
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
NoN/AYesYesYesNo
Bolivia
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesYesNoNoN/ANo
Botswana
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesNoYesNoNo
Brazil
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Bulgaria
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Burkina Faso
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Burundi
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Cambodia
East Asia & PacificEAP
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Cameroon
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Canada
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Chad
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesNoNo
Chile
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
China
East Asia & PacificEAP
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Colombia
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Congo, Rep.
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Costa Rica
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesNoYesNoN/ANo
Côte d'Ivoire
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
NoN/AYesYesYesNo
Croatia
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Czech Republic
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/ANoNoN/ANo
Denmark
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/ANoNoN/ANo
Dominican Republic
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Ecuador
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
YesNoYesNoN/AYes
El Salvador
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Estonia
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Ethiopia
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesYes
Fiji
East Asia & PacificEAP
YesYesYesYesNoNo
Finland
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
France
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Gabon
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Georgia
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Germany
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Ghana
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesNoNo
Greece
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Guatemala
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
NoN/AYesYesYesNo
Guinea
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Haiti
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Honduras
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Hong Kong SAR, China
East Asia & PacificEAP
NoN/AYesYesYesNo
Hungary
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Iceland
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
India
South AsiaSA
YesYesYesYesNoYes
Indonesia
East Asia & PacificEAP
YesNoYesYesYesYes
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
NoN/AYesNoN/AYes
Ireland
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Israel
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/ANoNoN/AYes
Italy
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Jamaica
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Japan
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Jordan
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
YesNoYesNoN/AYes
Kazakhstan
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Kenya
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesYes
Korea, Rep.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Kosovo
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Kuwait
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
NoN/AYesNoN/AYes
Kyrgyz Republic
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Lao PDR
East Asia & PacificEAP
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Latvia
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesNoYesNoN/ANo
Lebanon
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
NoN/AYesNoN/AYes
Lesotho
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesNoNo
Liberia
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
NoN/AYesYesYesNo
Lithuania
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Macedonia, FYR
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Madagascar
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Malawi
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Malaysia
East Asia & PacificEAP
YesYesYesYesNoYes
Mali
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Mauritania
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
NoN/AYesNoN/AYes
Mauritius
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesNoYes
Mexico
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Moldova
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Mongolia
East Asia & PacificEAP
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Montenegro
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesNoYesNoN/ANo
Morocco
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
NoN/AYesNoN/A No
Mozambique
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
NoN/AYesYesYesNo
Namibia
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Nepal
South AsiaSA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Netherlands
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
New Zealand
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
YesYesNoNoN/ANo
Nicaragua
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Niger
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Nigeria
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesYes
Norway
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/ANoNoN/ANo
Oman
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
YesYesYesNoN/A Yes
Pakistan
South AsiaSA
YesYesYesYesYesYes
Panama
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesNoNoN/ANo
Papua New Guinea
East Asia & PacificEAP
NoN/AYesYesYesNo
Paraguay
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesNoYesNoN/ANo
Peru
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Philippines
East Asia & PacificEAP
NoN/AYesYesYesNo
Poland
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
YesNoYesNoN/ANo
Portugal
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
YesNoYesNoN/ANo
Puerto Rico (U.S.)
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Romania
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesNoYesNoN/ANo
Russian Federation
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Rwanda
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Saudi Arabia
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
NoN/ANoNoN/A Yes
Senegal
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesNoYesNoN/ANo
Serbia
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Sierra Leone
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesNoNo
Singapore
East Asia & PacificEAP
YesNoYesNoNo Yes
Slovak Republic
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Slovenia
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
South Africa
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesNo
Spain
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Sri Lanka
South AsiaSA
YesYesYesYesNoYes
Sudan
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesNoN/AYes
Sweden
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Switzerland
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Syrian Arab Republic
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
YesYesYesNoN/A Yes
Taiwan, China
East Asia & PacificEAP
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Tajikistan
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Tanzania
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Thailand
East Asia & PacificEAP
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Togo
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
NoN/AYesYesYesNo
Tunisia
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Turkey
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Uganda
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesYes
Ukraine
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
United Arab Emirates
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
NoN/AYesNoN/A Yes
United Kingdom
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/ANoNoN/ANo
United States
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOECD
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Uruguay
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
NoN/AYesNoN/ANo
Uzbekistan
Eastern Europe & Central AsiaECA
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Venezuela, RB
Latin America & CaribbeanLAC
YesYesYesNoN/ANo
Vietnam
East Asia & PacificEAP
YesYesYesNoN/A No
West Bank and Gaza
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
YesYesYesNoN/AYes
Yemen, Rep.
Middle East & North AfricaMENA
NoN/AYesNoN/AYes
Zambia
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesNoNo
Zimbabwe
Sub-Saharan AfricaSSA
YesYesYesYesYesNo